1. Atelectasis in the newborn
4. Treatment of atelectasis
Atelectasis - a disease characterized spadenielung portion in which no air flows, whereby gas exchange occurs.
Atelectasis is divided into several types: local, total and subtotal.
There are also primary atelectasis, which occurs at birth in the case of not straightening do not breathe easy, as well as secondary atelectasis, which is manifested in spadenie breathe easy.
obstructive pulmonary atelectasis or its segments - form of the disease that occurs as a result of impaired patency of the bronchi.In obstructive pulmonary atelectasis never fallen down and in full compliance with all the pleural cavity.Among the most common causes of obstructive atelectasis bronchi can be identified gap;accumulation of blood and mucus in the bronchi, which is formed due to the low efficiency of the cough act;compression and bend under compression of the bronchi of the lung, which occur against a backgrou
compression atelectasis of the lung - a form of the disease that occurs as a result of complete or partial filling of the pleural cavity with liquid exudate, blood, tumor masses, or air (when pneumothorax).Compression atelectasis occurs, usually on the background hydrothorax and heart failure, as well as pleural effusion tumor origin.Compression atelectasis may also occur when tension pneumothorax, which is characterized by a significant excess of pressure of air in the pleural cavity of the atmospheric pressure.In some cases, compression atelectasis of the lung develops as a result of raising the diaphragm in patients suffering from peritonitis or subphrenic abscess.
Atelectasis in the newborn - a form of the disease, in which segments of the lung or the entire lung with the birth of the child is not involved in the process of respiration.Atelectasis in the newborn occurs, as a rule, weak, non-viable children, stillbirths, as well as children who died shortly after birth due to falling water fruit or meconium in the airways.An extensive atelectasis neonates in almost all cases, unfortunately, leads to death.At the focal atelectasis lung prognosis is more favorable.In this form of the disease atelectasis may eventually crack or be transformed into a small-sized scars.
When spadenie pulmonary vesicles (alveoli) due to exposure to certain factors may develop acquired atelectasis in the newborn.
In some cases, atelectasis in newborns takes quite a long time without causing any symptoms.When massive atelectasis in newborns can lead to abnormalities of respiratory function, manifested in the form of nasolabial triangle cyanosis and dyspnea.If atelectasis in newborns can develop lung abscess, or pneumonia.
pulmonary atelectasis usually develops gradually and may cause only a little short of breath.In some cases, during the course of the disease is not observed any significant symptoms or may appear dry cough.
In the case of the rapid development of lung atelectasis in its large area, the skin becomes bluish or ashy hue, there is a sharp pain in the affected area, and there is a strong shortness of breath.The high temperature and rapid pulse observed during infection of this disease.In the event of a sharp drop in blood pressure there is a risk of shock.
Among the main causes of lung atelectasis can be identified occlusion of the bronchi of one of the main branches of the trachea, which leads directly to the lungs.In some cases blocked and small airways.Occlusion can provoke a tumor, mucous plug or enlarged lymph nodes.On the background of occluded air from the alveolar airways absorbed into the bloodstream, resulting in their spadenie and reduction.Meanwhile collapsed lung tissue filled with blood cells, mucus and plasma, and then there is its infection.
is often breathing surface, preferably after surgery, particularly abdominal and chest cavity, whereby the lower parts of the lungs expand enough.This circumstance may cause the development of lung atelectasis.
middle lobe syndrome - a type of chronic atelectasis, which falls under the average share of the right lung.As a rule, this fact is due to pressure on the bronchus, which has enlarged lymph nodes or swelling.It should be noted that there is no narrowing of the bronchi in all cases.
Pneumonia may develop on the background of the blocked site collapsed lung.And the disease is completely cured and converted to chronic inflammation, fibrosis or bronchiectasis.
Surfactant - specific substance covering the alveolar mucosa, which helps to reduce surface tension in them, and also prevents their decay.Respiratory distress syndrome occurs in premature infants and is characterized by the inability of the lung to kill.
mikroatelektazov Occurrence occurs after prolonged oxygen therapy because of generalized infection (sepsis), as well as due to many other factors contributing to damage to the alveolar mucosa.
Treatment of atelectasis is to remove its root cause.Bronchoscopy is quite effective in the treatment of atelectasis if the blockage is removed by aspiration or not cough.Antibiotics are used in treating atelectasis if the disease is accompanied by infection.
Antibiotics are also used in long-term course of the disease, as in this case the infection is almost inevitable.
The affected part of the lung is removed, if chronic and recurrent infections threatens the health or other means to stop the bleeding fails.Timely removal of the tumor, blocking the airways, will prevent the development of recurrent obstructive pneumonia and atelectasis.
Treatment of atelectasis in patients with chest deformities or various neurological disorders that have long accompanied by shallow breathing, is the use of mechanical devices that help alleviate breathing.This device is able to create a constant pressure so that even at the end of exhalation airways do not collapse.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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