1. reasons aspergillosis
3. diagnosis of aspergillosis
5. Prevention aspergillosis
aspergillosis - a disease which is caused by the fungi Aspergillus family and is characterized by lesions in various organs and systems of the body, but often suffers from bronchopulmonary system.The disease occurs usually with various chronic allergic reactions or toxic effects.Pathogen aspergillosis sufficiently strongly distributed in the environment - they are in the ground and in the water and in the air, and is able to replicate in humans and in animals.Aspergillus species can be seen in the products that have deteriorated, on damp walls of buildings and premises - a dense white fluff having inside green or black island.Mushroom quite viable, has good mycelium.
pulmonary aspergillosis - a fungal infection, which occupies first place in frequency of occurrence.The disease is divided into the endogenous and exogenous form.
Development promotes a variety of different factors.These include decreased immunity associated with malnutrition, a variety of diseases (tuberculosis, ankylosing spondylitis, lung abscess).Also, the use of immunosuppressive drugs, radiation therapy, dysbiosis - can greatly aggravate the condition of the body and provoke aspergillosis.Often the disease develops in the workers of enterprises, where Aspergillus is used in the process (breweries, ginneries, textile mills, silos, etc..).Aspergillosis occurs most often as a secondary disease against other diseases.Healthy people exposed to the disease only because of penetration into the body of enormous doses of the fungus.
exogenous aspergillosis develops as a result of aerogenic (fungal spores from entering the body through the respiratory tract), nutritional (eating contaminated food) and contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) infection.The possibility of infection of a healthy person is not established from a patient.Endogenous aspergillosis manifests itself as a result of the activation of Aspergillus, which live on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes.Perhaps transplacental infection.
As mentioned above, most often suffer bronchopulmonary system (pulmonary aspergillosis), a little less - ears, mucous nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, tonsils.Very rarely affects the eyes, the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidneys.
Due to the fact that the first hit takes the respiratory system, the main aspergillosis symptoms begin to appear just on the part of the respiratory system.Sometimes the fungus enters the body with the blood and lymph, quickly spreading to all organs.This type of disease is characterized by high mortality rates - about 80%.
primary exogenous pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by the emergence of tracheobronchitis, sometimes pneumonia.The incubation period - about 20 minutes, at low doses of inhaled pathogen - up to 3 days.In the early development of the disease there is a feeling of bitterness in the mouth, sore throat, cough.These aspergillosis symptoms characterize the primary stage of the disease.After some time, there is shortness of breath, excessive sweating, headache, heart palpitations, "body aches' fever;in the lungs could be heard dry wheezing.Sometimes the process takes a chronic form of the disease, which is similar to for endogenous pulmonary aspergillosis.Severe cases characterized by sputum, rales in the lungs.It must be remembered that in any manifestation of aspergillosis symptoms should immediately consult a doctor as early detection of the disease contributes to a speedy recovery.
When diagnosing the disease takes into account all epidemiological conditions, such as the patient's occupation, the presence of any disease that can weaken the immune system, and others.Confirmation of the correct diagnosis can be the selection of sputum pathogen.You need to know that almost do not stand out from the blood of Aspergillus.All clinical and radiological findings are forced to differentiate pulmonary aspergillosis with other fungal infections (candidiasis, histoplasmosis), as well as diseases such as tuberculosis, lung abscess, various tumors, chronic bronchitis.
aspergillosis Treatment may well be carried out in a specialist clinic or the relevant areas in the hospital (pulmonology, dermatology and ENT department).Heavy state of the sick person, asthma attacks, hawking the blood - are indications for immediate hospitalization.
Treatment of aspergillosis - complex.You must first have an impact on the fungus.For this widely used antifungal (antifungal) preparations and success in the treatment of this disease depends on their correct selection, as well as their doses.In the treatment of aspergillosis should be remembered that it requires prolonged hospitalization and relatively long-term use of drugs.A variety of such drugs is large, but not all of them operate in the same fungus.For example, with Aspergillus meningitis need to take several medicines that improve penetration of one or another antifungal agent in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Prevention aspergillosis is divided into primary prevention and relapse prevention.With regard to primary prevention, for the patients with severe immune deficiency is necessary to take measures aimed at preventing the penetration of Aspergillus in the air.But such measures are time-consuming and often costly, because in such cases it is necessary to use a camera with a laminar flow, as well as gateways and filters air between rooms.
Because the ground is a breeding ground for fungi, in the wards of patients with reduced protective functions of the body should not be left houseplants.When the first symptoms of aspergillosis is necessary to isolate the sick person, remove indoor plants, clean the air vents, air conditioners, as well as all the wet surfaces.If you find you need to disinfect the surface of Aspergillus.
Relapse prevention involves a prohibition of any excavation, c / x work, contact with animals, with the exception of your stay in wet areas, the prohibition of consumption of stale food products, cheeses.
General preventive measures are: the fight against dust and injuries in the workplace, compulsory wearing of respirators by employees granaries, vegetable stores, mills, weaving enterprises.Early detection of the disease makes it possible in time to conduct a full treatment of aspergillosis.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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