2. reasons apraxia
4. Treatment of apraxia
Apraxia - a rare disease, which is expressed inviolation of purposeful movements and actions during that saved its component elementary movement.Thus, the patient is unable to perform a complex operation that requires memorizing a particular sequence of movements.
Apraxia usually occurs as a result of focal lesions of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres or pathways of the corpus callosum.This disease can be limited.In such cases, movement disorders occur for only one half of the body, or only one limb muscles of the face.
When apraxia does not exist any physical defect of the hands or feet, which would be an obstacle to the implementation of actions.Thus, fastening buttons a person must perform a series of movements, but apraxia patients unable to meet them in the desired sequence.
Sometimes apraxia occurs only when performing certain types of tasks.For example, a person loses the ability
The term "apraxia" combines various forms of violations.There are several classifications of the disease.
classification of disease at the place of localization of pathological disorders in the brain identifies the following types of parectropia:
- frontal - in this case struck the prefrontal cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, which is manifested in violation of programming a complex sequence of actions of the motor act.
- apraxia motor - with motor apraxia patient can make the plan a sequence of actions, of which the construction of a complex motor act execution, but can not execute it.When motor apraxia patient understands the assignment, but can not carry it out, even after the demonstration.Motor apraxia can be one-sided, that is limited to only one hand.
- premotor - occurs in lesions of the premotor area of the cerebral cortex and characterized dezavtomatizatsiey motor acts.Manifested violation of the skills needed for the transition from individual to more complex movements.
- cortical - occurs in lesions of the cortex of the dominant hemisphere of the brain.
- bilateral - occurs when abnormal focal lesions of the inferior parietal lobe of the dominant hemisphere.
By kinds of cognitive disorders and apraxia of skills is divided into the following types:
- akinetic - evident lack of motivation to move.
- amnestic - manifest violation of arbitrary action, while maintaining imitative.
- ideational - characterized by the inability of the patient to outline the plan of consecutive actions that are necessary to perform a complicated act.
- kinesthetic afferent or apraxia - in this condition as a result of disorders kinesthetic afferent motor act violated voluntary movements while maintaining the spatial organization of the external movements.Afferent apraxia is characterized by undifferentiated, poorly controlled movements.Patients with apraxia afferent lose the ability to properly reproduce the various postures hands, have difficulty carrying out actions without objects, for example, can not show the movement that needs to be done to pour into a glass of water.Afferent apraxia can be compensated by increasing the visual motion control.
- constructive apraxia - manifested in the fact that the patient can not make a thing out of its individual parts.Constructive apraxia is the most common and most regards designing of shapes of parts and drawing.When constructive apraxia patients can not or difficult to perform tasks on a worksheet or copying the memory of simple and complex geometric shapes, objects, animals and humans.Also, patients with constructive apraxia have difficulty in constructing pieces of sticks or cubes.
- dressing apraxia - manifested in the fact that the patient is having trouble getting dressed.
- articulatory apraxia - the most complex form of the disease in which the patient is broken control facial muscles.When articulating apraxia occurs disorder of complex movements of the lips and tongue, which leads to disruption of speech and the inability to speak coherently.Patients articulating apraxia is not able to reproduce on the instructions simple articulatory posture, can not find the position of the vocal apparatus necessary for pronouncing the sounds.Thus a person suffering from apraxia articulation, does not lose the ability to understand another's speech.
- space - in this form of the disease is disturbed orientation in space.Thus, the patient is not able to determine the direction (right - left).
- apraxia walking - impaired ability to walk in the absence of motor or vestibular disorders.
disease cause brain damage that may occur as a result of stroke, infections, tumors, trauma or degenerative processes.
of diagnosis for the physician usually first interrogates the patient's relatives about his ability to perform simple actions and conduct a neurological assessment, during which the patient may be asked to perform some movement, draw the shape and write a few words, to show a specific sequence of movements.
also to diagnose apraxia and clarify the localization of the pathological process is carried out computer or magnetic resonance imaging.
specific treatment of the disease does not exist.Some effective for functional recovery and mitigate the symptoms have physiotherapy and occupational therapy, speech therapy exercises, cognitive rehabilitation.But in general, patients with apraxia need constant care and assistance in the implementation of basic household activities.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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