1. disease types and its causes
2. apnea syndrome and its effects on the body
3. Symptoms of respiratory arrest
5. apnea treatment in children and adults
apnea (sleep apnea, sleep apnea, sleep apnea) - a disorder which is characterized by the repeated cessation of breathing functions during sleep for 10 seconds or more.The duration of apnea ranges from 10 seconds to 3 minutes (in severe cases).
It is very important to have information about the reasons for the cessation of breathing, since it is due to determine the cause is determined by the type and tactics of treatment of apnea.
exist purely mechanical causes of sleep apnea, which are in the obstruction (blockage) of the lumen of the respiratory tract is most often on the level of the oropharynx.Sleep apnea, which arose as a result of this obstruction is called obstructive.In adults, the overlap airway during sleep occurs due to excessive relaxation of thro
Overweight, taking sedatives, alcohol abuse provoke obstructive sleep apnea.
There are also a central apnea, in which breathing is interrupted due to disorders of the central nervous system.With such a disorder is no signal from the respiratory center of the brain, so there is no next breath.The reason for the disorder may lie in the presence of a viral infection, stroke, brain tumors, a variety of pathological processes in the brain stem.
Rarely, but there are patients who present and central and obstructive sleep apnea simultaneously.In this case it called mixed apnea.
If breathing stops occur more than 10 times per hour, and every period of absence of breathing for 10 seconds or more, then we can talk about a syndrome of sleep apnea.According to recent studies, each Eleven women and one in five men from 30 to 60 years old are not even aware that the sick sleep apnea syndrome.In people over 60 years this figure increased almost threefold.
sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by debilitating (especially near sleeping) snoring, frequent awakenings patient from feeling a lack of air and choking, frequent nighttime urination, or urinary incontinence.During this sleep does not recover any physical or mental capacity for work, the person feels tired, his torment morning headaches and excessive daytime sleepiness.
Periodic air shortage, as a result - anoxia of tissues and organs are displayed on the cardiovascular system, causing hypertension and cardiac arrhythmia, disorders appear erectile function and memory.Due to constant fatigue reduced ability to concentrate, visual acuity and hearing.
But the main danger of sleep apnea syndrome - a risk of death, which may end in any respiratory arrest.
In 99.9% of cases of sleep apnea is accompanied by snoring.Even in healthy people to snoring, which typically narrowed airways may eventually be added obstructive apnea in which the airway is completely overlapped.Respiratory arrest in adults occurs when a calm moderate snoring replaces the silence, after which there is a sharp strong snores.
In central sleep apnea in children with low birth weight, premature infants and children up to a year apnea is silent.The child is no longer simply to breathe, he makes no effort to carry out breath.Pulse becomes rare, skin and lips turn blue baby.
When obstructive sleep apnea in children and adolescents apnea symptoms can no longer be overlooked.The child starts to wheeze is heard the whistle, then the breath is lost, the skin becomes bluish tint.After a pause, breathing resumes, the child loudly sobbing or sighing.
The most common sleep apnea - this is a problem in preterm infants.Moreover, in contrast to adults, who in most cases of apnea is obstructive in nature, not in those born at term children cases, central sleep apnea, which is related to the immaturity of the respiratory center in the brain regulate the baby.
apnea in children is quite rare, however, that such cessation of breathing are the main cause of the so-called syndrome of sudden death - the third in the structure of the causes of infant mortality.
Sometimes the problem of sleep apnea in premature babies becomes extremely acute, and it is directly dependent on the degree of premature babies.The good news is that over time, the regulation of respiration centers improve their activities and the problem disappears.But until that time, parents should be very attentive to the baby's sleep, they should stock up information on first aid and artificial respiration.
apnea in children older than one year, as well as in children born at term, often it is obstructive in nature.In newborn airway blockage can occur due to birth injury, brain hematomas, hereditary diseases, congenital airway anomalies.In older children, sleep apnea causes polyps, enlarged adenoids, infectious and allergic diseases, anemia, and certain medications.
sleep apnea syndrome - a problem every second child with cerebral palsy and Down syndrome.
To date, the most commonly used treatment for sleep apnea is CPAP therapy (CPAP therapy).This method allows you to create continuous positive airway pressure by feeding them in the air.About bedside put aparata CPAP, the patient is put on a mask, air flows from the instrument to the mask.But this method - it is only symptomatic treatment, that is, when you use it stops breathing will not, but he will not cure sleep apnea.However, its use as a positive effect on the life of the patient.
apnea treatment in infants CPAP therapy is carried out only in severe cases.
If apnea reason for lowering the lower jaw, then used for the correction of malocclusion intraoral removable orthodontic devices.If there is evidence (eg, enlarged tongue) treatment of sleep apnea is performed surgically.In very severe cases, a tracheotomy.
the initial stages of treatment for sleep apnea is done the old proven techniques: the expansion of the nostrils with a special adhesive tape and exercise the muscles of the oropharynx.In order to somehow reduce the symptoms of the disease, children and adults encouraged to sleep on their sides.
CPAP therapy is used only for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea origin.Treatment of central sleep apnea in children and adults is very limited, and often not effective.She is taking drugs whose action is to stimulate the brain respiratory center.
is important to know before you begin treatment of apnea should be brought back to normal weight, adjust the diet, give up alcohol and tranquilizers reception, as well as to normalize the functioning of the thyroid gland.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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