15 April

Aortic stenosis - symptoms, treatment , degree

Contents:

1. reasons

2. Classification

3. Symptoms of aortic stenosis

4. Treatment of aortic stenosis

Aortic stenosis - a narrowingopening of the aortic valve, leading to restriction of blood flow from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta during systole (its reduction).Stenosis of the aortic valve is the most common acquired heart disease, developing one in ten patients over the age of 60-65 years.Most often, the disease leads to the appearance of sclerotic changes in the aortic valve (85% of cases), rarely cause is rheumatic process (up to 10% of cases).

Separately considered congenital aortic stenosis.The normal aortic valve consists of three flaps regulating the flow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta.The presence of such congenital disorders as bicuspid aortic valve or single-winged leads to the fact that the lumen in the aortic orifice narrower, the left ventricle works with the increased load.

reasons

Aortic stenosis in the elderly is often a result

of the accumulation of calcium on the valve flaps, so that they lose their elasticity.The disease develops in people older than 60 years, although the first of its symptoms may not bother patients even the next 10-15 years.

Sometimes the cause of aortic stenosis in the elderly is experienced in childhood rheumatic fever.In this case satellites disease usually become mitral valve stenosis or insufficiency.The cause of aortic stenosis in young people, in most cases becomes rheumatism.

Congenital disease can not assert itself in infancy and preschool age, but as the child grows stenosis makes itself felt.The fact that the child's heart increases as it grows, the volume of blood circulating through the aortic valve, also increase, while the dimensions of the valve remains unchanged.At its edges is deposited calcium, further narrowing of the valve opening and making it tougher.

Classification

There are four degrees of aortic stenosis.The degree of stenosis determined based on the values ​​of the area transmissive hole valve and systolic pressure gradient (GDM between the left ventricle of the heart and aorta).

I degree - moderate stenosis.The area of ​​the valve hole within 1.6-1.2 cm2 (the norm metrics comprise 2.5-3.5 cm2) HSD 40 mm Hg

II degree of aortic stenosis - severe stenosis.The area of ​​the valve opening is reduced to 0.7-1.2 cm2 HSD index values ​​vary from 40 to 70 mm Hg

III degree - a sharp stenosis.The area of ​​the valve hole coincides with the II degree of stenosis, but HSD has more than 70 mm Hg

IV degree of aortic stenosis - a critical stenosis.The area of ​​the valve hole in the range 0.5-0.7 cm 2, GDM than 80 mm Hg

Symptoms of aortic stenosis

for this disease is characterized by a long asymptomatic treatment.Most often viewed stenosis diagnosed by examination of the heart for other diseases.At the same time revealed during examination disease can not make themselves any symptoms more than ten years.However, faced with aortic valve stenosis patients put on the account to the cardiologist.They must undergo regular echocardiographic examination, the doctor was able to monitor the condition of the heart valve.

Over time, patients manifested symptoms of aortic stenosis, like shortness of breath and fatigue during exercise.In addition, there are signs of heart failure.

Patients with a second degree of stenosis when performing physical activities can disturb dizziness, fainting, and transient aching chest pain - angina.

for stenosis of the third and fourth degree are characteristic symptoms of the disease more dangerous.The outflow of blood from the left ventricle significantly obstructed, thereby enhancing not only the pressure inside the heart, but also the pressure in the pulmonary vessels.It appears a symptom of aortic stenosis, as choking.Develops cardiac asthma attack that can lead to such life-threatening conditions such as pulmonary edema.

Congenital stenosis of the aortic valve in the first years of a child's life occurs, usually asymptomatic.The first symptoms of the stenosis may occur in the 10 or even 20 years.However, they can progress quickly.A progressive aortic valve stenosis leads to all of the above symptoms and require treatment.

Treatment of aortic stenosis

Special methods of conservative treatment of aortic stenosis does not exist.First of all, it should be the treatment of the underlying disease that resulted in the development of stenosis.

Treatment of aortic stenosis is largely determined by the dynamics of the disease, which can progress in a fast and a slow pace.Slowly developing stenosis, symptoms do not show up, does not require urgent surgical intervention.

When it comes to rapidly evolving disease with severe, to disturb the patient's symptoms, you may need surgery to replace the aortic valve.

Unfortunately, the growing symptoms of this disease are a greater risk to human life and health, the more complex heart surgery.Most of the patients with severe stenosis do not live longer than 3-5 years.

Teenagers and people for whom open heart surgery is particularly risky, as an alternative treatment of aortic stenosis may be offered balloon valvuloplasty.The essence of this procedure is that the aortic valve opening administered thin cylinder, after which it is inflated, and that leads to the expansion orifice.Although balloon valvuloplasty and less risky, it is not performed in elderly patients, since in their case has only temporary effectiveness.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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