14 April

The aneurysm and aortic vessels - types , symptoms, treatment

Contents:

1. General characteristics of the disease

2. Causes and symptoms of aortic aneurysm

3. Causes and symptoms of a brain aneurysm vessels

4. Diagnostics

disease

5. Treatment of aneurysms

6. Prevention

aneurysm - a local expansion or bulging of the wall of the blood vessel (usually arteries) due to its thinning and / or stretching.

General characteristics of the disease

«Intrigue» aneurysm that in many cases it does not manifest itself symptomatically and discovered by chance when a patient passes research on other diseases.

During the formation of elastic fibers aneurysmal vessel destroyed, fibrous tissue is stretched, increasing the diameter of the vessel wall occurs in its unnatural voltage, it extends circumferentially or bulges on one side.Aneurysm doctors call a time bomb "explosion" which could happen at any time.

Theoretically aneurysm may be located in any artery, but most often it is the largest artery - the aorta (aortic aneurysm) and artery of the br

ain (cerebral aneurysms).

aorta was divided into two sections: thoracic and abdominal.Depending on where the localization extension isolated aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and abdominal aortic aneurysm (in other words, an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta).

Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a spindle (expansion across the circumference of the aorta), the bag-shaped (protrusion of one wall of the aorta) and exfoliating (aortic dissection wall) forms.

Causes and symptoms of aortic aneurysm

reasons (or more precisely - the risk factors), aortic aneurysm, in particular the most widespread of its kind of abdominal aortic aneurysm:

  • atherosclerosis;
  • jumps in blood pressure;
  • syphilis;
  • traumatic, infectious, inflammatory damage to the aorta;
  • Morthal syndrome;
  • physical and emotional stress;
  • congenital defect of the aorta.

classic symptom of abdominal aortic aneurysm is an aching, deep, boring or throbbing pain and discomfort in the abdomen, a feeling of pulsation in the abdomen.The pain may be given in the hips, lower back, chest, buttocks, legs.In some cases, you can change the color of the skin of hands, a cyanotic shade fingers.

When thoracic aneurysm deep, throbbing pain is felt in the chest, but may be given in the shoulder.In addition, there are shortness of breath, cough, discomfort and pain when swallowing.Symptoms of inflammatory aneurysms - fever and weight loss.

In the case of rupture of the aneurysm person experiences severe pain, the result of which - his state of shock, manifesting itself impaired respiratory function, heart palpitations, pale skin, lack of response to questions, loss of movement ability.

aortic aneurysm subject to its timely diagnosis amenable to successful treatment.But it is certainly a gap in death, a person dies within four minutes of the bleeding.For this reason it is very important to pay attention to the slightest problem in the body resembling the symptoms of an aneurysm.

Causes and symptoms of brain aneurysm

Causes brain aneurysm is often rooted in congenital defects of blood vessels.However, smoking, alcohol, oral contraceptives are the factors that provoke its appearance and tearing.

cerebral aneurysms often do not manifest themselves until that time, until the vessel wall is not a crack or rupture, resulting in the subarachnoid space of the brain blood poured out.This fact inevitably leads to brain damage, stroke, and often death.

first symptoms of brain aneurysm appear, as a rule, only when:

  • extension (protrusion) of large size and compresses the surrounding tissues;
  • to aneurysm rupture left a few days.

If the aneurysm is so large that compresses the surrounding tissues, a sick person feels weakness, numbness of the face, pain in the eyes, he had problems with his vision and dilated pupils.

Unlike abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptured aneurysm of cerebral vessels does not mean an immediate death of man.One tenth of patients die before admission, another half - for 30 days thereafter, the majority of survivors remain disabled for life.

Due to the similarity of the symptoms of cerebral aneurysms are often mistaken for brain tumor.

disease diagnosis

Before starting the treatment of the aneurysm is necessary to conduct a thorough diagnosis.

most informative method of diagnosis is angiography - contrast X-ray examination of the vessel, which determines its status, the nature and size of blood flow abnormalities.

Less informative, but still used in the diagnosis methods - Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) provides images of blood vessels and evaluate the characteristics of blood flow in them.

accessible and quite informative method of diagnosis of any type of aneurysm is a Doppler ultrasound - a method of ultrasound examination of the blood vessels, allowing to see the three-dimensional image of the vessel's location, evaluate his condition from different angles, to determine the degree of pathological process.

Treatment of aneurysms

Today, there are two ways to treat the aneurysm - surgery and expectant management.

The most common treatment of aneurysms is performed by means of a surgical intervention, which may be a so-called open method (traditional surgery) or by stenting (endovascular surgery).

aneurysm treatment method chosen depends on such factors:

  • age of the patient;
  • comorbidities;
  • place aneurysm location;
  • size and shape of protrusions.

traditional surgery in the treatment of aneurysms is performed under local anesthesia, through the implementation of a cut in the protrusion.After that, the surgeon must be:

  • or excise the pathological area of ​​the artery;
  • or excised portion and replace it with a prosthesis;
  • or sew prosthesis (stent) into the lumen of the aneurysm;
  • or spend clipping - a special clamping clip the base of the aneurysm.

essence of endovascular treatment of aneurysms is in the introduction to the aorta tube with a metal frame, which plays the role of "reinforcement" for the vessel.Low invasiveness of this method eliminates the need for local anesthesia.

Expectant management in the treatment of aneurysms is taking place only at small scale protrusions.For example, a doctor may use watchful waiting with an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, if its dimensions do not exceed 5 cm.But if the protrusion of more than 6-7cm dramatically increases the probability of rupture of the vessel wall, which means the need for surgery.

Prevention

best prevention of aneurysm - a healthy lifestyle.It should include physical exercise, smoking cessation and alcohol elimination from the diet foods with a high content of cholesterol, and in case of excess weight - its normalization.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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