Acromegaly - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments


1. reasons acromegaly pituitary

2. Symptoms of the disease

3. Diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly pituitary

acromegaly (acromegaly pituitary) - neuroendocrine disease,at which there is a pathological increase of individual body parts.This disease is the result of excessive secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland of a tumor.

Acromegaly - a relatively rare disease that occurs in men and women aged 40-60 years.It is characterized by enlargement of the ears, nose, lips, jaw, hands and feet.These processes are accompanied by such indirect symptoms of acromegaly as constant headaches and joint pain, violation of sexual and reproductive functions.

disease manifests itself after the cessation of growth of the organism.Symptoms of acromegaly is increasing gradually.Usually the first diagnosis of acromegaly pituitary occurs through the seven years since the beginning of the development of the disease.

In this article, we will focus on the causes of acromegaly, the sym

ptoms of this disease, as well as the existing methods of the treatment of acromegaly.

reasons acromegaly pituitary

cause of acromegaly is a violation of the pituitary gland.Produced in human pituitary growth hormone or somatotropin.It provides the processes of formation of bones, muscles, linear growth.In adults, this hormone regulates carbohydrate, fat, water and salt exchange.Monitors the proper functioning of the hypothalamus pituitary.

Contents of growth hormone varies throughout the day.Most of it is produced in the morning.In a patient with acromegaly pituitary observed increased growth hormone and a violation of the right rhythm release it into the blood.

pituitary cells, which are responsible for the production of growth hormone, cease to be subject to the hypothalamus.They multiply rapidly and actively produce growth hormone.As a result of continued growth of cells formed pituitary adenoma - a benign tumor of the pituitary gland.Unchanged pituitary cells are destroyed or compressed adenoma, which often reaches a sufficiently large size.

reason pituitary acromegaly may be hypothalamic tumors, head injuries, sinusitis (chronic inflammation of the sinuses).

Experts note a hereditary cause of acromegaly.Most often the disease occurs in people whose relatives had the same disease.

In addition, the cause of acromegaly may be some problems, such as Rosenthal-Klopfer syndrome (gigantism and powerful combination of the folds of the skin head and neck), Sotos syndrome (rapid growth of organs with features of gigantism).

The symptoms of acromegaly

Symptoms depend on the stage of the disease.There are four stages of acromegaly.

1.Preakromegalicheskaya: signs of the disease is almost not expressed, it is still impossible to diagnose.

2.Gipertroficheskaya: characterized by an increase of symptoms of acromegaly.

3.Opuholevaya: it is characterized by symptoms of destruction and disruption of structures, which are located nearby.It may be dysfunction of the organs of vision, or increased intracranial pressure.

4.Kahekticheskaya: the final stage in which the growing signs of exhaustion of the whole body.

Experts identify the main symptoms of acromegaly pituitary:

  • frequent headache, usually appear due to increased intracranial pressure;
  • sleep disorders, fatigue;
  • arise from time to time, dizziness;
  • numbness of the upper or lower limbs;
  • gradual loss of vision in which there is a reduction of the visual field and decreased visual acuity;
  • pain in the joints and the lumbar spine;
  • on the first stage of the disease is often an increase in muscle strength, which was later replaced by its decrease and muscle atrophy;sometimes possible weakness (muscle weakness);
  • a significant increase in the size of the limbs, with hands and feet become shovel-view;
  • coarsening of facial features - lips, ears, brow, cheekbones, nose;enlarged lower jaw pushed forward, the tongue reaches this size in which it is difficult to be placed in the mouth;there is one more symptom of acromegaly - rough, large folds on the face;
  • increases the size of sweat and sebaceous glands, which leads to an increase in fat and moisture of the skin, especially in the folds and contact with clothing;observed increased growth of hair on the body;
  • due to thickening of the vocal ligament apparatus coarsens his voice;
  • in the late stages symptoms of multiple organ failure - cardiac, pulmonary, renal, hepatic failure;
  • patients women disrupted menstrual cycle, patients males - decreased sexual function;
  • in the case of tumor development in the direction of the hypothalamus in patients with marked fluctuations in body temperature, increased sleepiness, thirst, increased urine formation;

Diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly pituitary

diagnosis of acromegaly includes various methods of research.The following studies are carried out most often:

  • X-ray study of the skull in lateral view;
  • CT area of ​​the pituitary and brain with contrast binding or MRI without contrast;
  • measurement of the thickness of soft tissues of the foot, which has a correlation with the level of somatropnogo hormone;
  • laboratory diagnostics to determine the secretion of growth hormone in the blood;
  • inspection ophthalmologist - an obligatory study with suspected acromegaly;
  • chest X-ray;
  • thyroid ultrasound, pelvic organs;
  • electrocardiogram;
  • blood chemistry.

Treatment of acromegaly is directed to reducing the concentration of growth hormone in the blood.There are three main methods of treatment of this disease - conservative therapy, surgical treatment of acromegaly and radiotherapy.

Conservative treatment for acromegaly, the pituitary gland is the use of drugs that inhibit the production of the hormone somatropnogo.In our time, this is done using two groups of drugs.One group - analogues somatostina (Sandotastatin, Somatulin).The second group - dopamine agonists (Parloder, abergin).

Surgical treatment of acromegaly is to remove the tumor by endonasal transsphenoidal or transsphenoidal intervention.Transsphenoidal method consists in carrying out the cut in the upper jaw in the region of the gum and removal of the tumor.The second method involves the entrance to the nasal cavity via the nostril via microinstruments.

radiotherapy in the treatment of acromegaly is usually used as an adjunct to postoperative treatment or conservative treatment.Irradiation pituitary region spend proton beam or gamma-rays.

In complex therapy may include other methods of treatment, which are aimed at addressing the causes acromegaly - a disease resulting in pituitary function was impaired.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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