1. classification of lung abscesses
2. Causes lung abscess
4. clinical picture of acute lung abscess and chronic lung abscess
5. Principles of treatment
lung abscess is called a disease in which the death of lung tissue, after which the formed cavity with necrotic masses, caused by bacterial infection.If the image of a few small foci of necrosis, this process is called gangrene (necrotizing pneumonia).As lung abscess and gangrene occur because one of the pathological process.Among patients prevail men aged 30-40 years.Women abscess appears 6-8 times less, that is primarily associated with smaller volume of potential risk factors. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, hypothermia, etc.
disease is classified according to the duration of the course and origin.Acute lung abscess include ulcers, is not more than 4-6 weeks, the rest of the formation is called chronic lung abscess.
Primary abscesses are manifestations of an infection,such as pneumonia.In addition, an abscess can appear in a healthy person by inhalation and in light of infectious agents.Secondary abscesses develop in such independent circumstances as blockage of the penetration from the outside, the local bronchiectasis, immunodeficiencies.
etiology of lung abscesses are classified depending on the causative agent.Pathogenic classification is based on the way in which there was an infection (hematogenous, bronchogenic, traumatic, and others.).According to the location in the tissue distinguish central and peripheral, single and multiple, unilateral or bilateral abscesses.
Most often, the disease is caused by the microflora of the mouth, manifesting as complications of aspiration pneumonia.As a rule, suffer from this disease is a predisposition to aspiration, and there are gum disease and tooth decay.Microbes of gaps between the gums and the teeth penetrate into the lower respiratory tract, and contribute to the development of infection.This infection leads to inflammation of lung tissue, and further their withering away.lung abscess appears after 1-2 weeks after the beginning of the inflammatory process.
Other mechanisms of disease: endocarditis tricuspid heart valve and the spread of germs by the bloodstream.These processes lead to the blockage of small blood vessels of the lung tissue clumps of microbes.Most often, the infection reaches the lungs at the time of aspiration of oropharyngeal contents.
As such, no specific causative agent of disease.The abscess lesions are hemolytic streptococcus and zelenyaschy, white and golden haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, fuzospirohetnuyu flora, Friedlander wand and anaerobic microbes.In addition, a significant role in the formation of disease and viruses play.
Symptoms The symptoms of lung abscess may develop suddenly or slowly.Early symptoms resemble pneumonia symptoms: fever, cough, loss of appetite, sweating and fatigue.Sputum is mixed with blood and smells bad, since the livelihoods of bacteria in the throat and mouth accompanied by generation of malodorous gases.
Clinical signs of the disease are manifested in the appearance of bronchial breathing and tightening of noises when breathing.When breathing the patient feels pain in the chest.
abscess Signs vary depending on the health of the patient, the pathogen, the duration and severity of the disease, as well as concomitant illnesses.For pulmonary abscess, infection caused by an anaerobic, body temperature change is insignificant, while for other pathogens is 38.5 ° C.
In most patients, there are abscess gum disease or tooth.
Acute lung abscess accompanied by chest pain, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, cough with purulent sputum.Often the disease is accompanied by hemoptysis.The sudden release of a large amount of foul-smelling sputum - a sign of a breakthrough in the bronchi cavity.Then there is a short-term improvement in the patient's condition.
clinical picture of chronic lung abscess is characterized by periodic exacerbation of purulent process.In periods of remission observed barking cough, increased sputum quantities of stinking when changing body position.It is also possible hemoptysis, night sweats, fatigue and rapid weight loss.
Conservative treatment of lung abscess more successful than before it started.First of all, carry out the compulsory hospitalization of the patient.It is necessary to provide him with an adequate supply of fresh air.In some cases the prescribed oxygen inhalation.Importance is also given nutritious food.
Therapy abscesses and gangrene of the lung should include measures to remove pus from the lesions and restore drainage, combat intoxication, maintaining patient safety forces, the impact on the flora and the use of symptomatic drugs.
Rapid healing of the abscess is not possible without antibiotics that are administered intramuscularly, intravenously or taken orally for several weeks or even months.Treatment of lung abscess continues until the complete disappearance of symptoms.This chest x-ray to show that the patient is completely healthy.
widely used such a measure, as the washing solution through the bronchoscope abscesses furagin, potassium permanganate or saline.In order to facilitate the outflow of mucus, the patient should systematically cough and breathing exercises to practice the exercises.
detoxification therapy of lung abscesses and gangrene includes plasma transfusions, intravenous vitamins, and gemodeza polyglucin.
Despite these measures, some patients abscess maintained.In such cases, it is drained through a tube that is inserted through the chest wall.If within 1.5-2 months.conservative therapy does not give a positive effect, the question of surgical treatment of lung abscess and remove the entire lung or part of it.
Mortality from lung abscess and gangrene of up to 5%.The risk of death is increased if the patient is weakened, impaired function of the immune system, the abscess is large or has a malignant lung tumor.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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