12 August

Pituitary adenoma : Symptoms

Pituitary adenoma Symptoms
manifestations of pituitary adenomas depend on the type of tumor: hormonally active or hormonally inactive adenomas.

Depending on the main manifestations are two basic types of disorders: endocrine and metabolic syndrome and oftalmonevrologicheskie manifestations.

endocrine and metabolic syndrome and its symptoms

most often due to excessive synthesis of pituitary hormones and damage to tissue adjacent to the tumor.Sometimes predominant symptoms caused by excessive activation of the organs of the target (for example, tireotropinomah possible manifestations of hyperthyroidism, when kortikotropinomy - symptoms of pituitary - Cushing).

Symptoms oftalmonevrologicheskogo manifestations

indicate the direct impact (pressure) to the following structures adenoma.

  • Adjacent tissue.Thus, when pressure on the optic chiasm (chiasma) are possible atrophy of the optic nerve, visual field changes and other disorders.
  • diaphragm sella (with tumor growth up).There is a constant dull headache in the eye sockets, t
    he temporal and frontal regions, slightly replace the normal analgesics.
  • Cranial nerves are located on the sides of the sella (3-6 couples).There are double vision, weakness of the eye muscles.
  • bottom of the sella (with its thinning and distribution of adenomas in the sphenoid sinus and ethmoid bones).There is a feeling of nasal congestion with the expiration of a clear fluid (CSF) from it.

course of the disease and complications of pituitary adenoma

often say spontaneous cure with hormonally active tumors prolaktinome.Usually this is due to changes in hormonal levels, and often occurs after delivery, although during pregnancy may increase the tumor.

symptoms of pituitary adenomas may also be intratumoral hemorrhage - a serious, but not life-threatening complications, manifested by sudden severe headache and visual impairment.

Another complication pituitary adenoma - acceleration of tumor growth under the influence of adverse factors such as stress, stroke, acute infectious diseases, etc.The most serious complications include malignancy and metastasis (more inherent kortikotropinomy).

Other types of complications are more associated with hormonal disorders in target organs (thyroid gland, adrenal glands, gonads, etc.) and their effects.

Prolaktinomy

Simpotomy pituitary adenoma in women:

  • often arise galactorrhea (milk ejection is the lactation period),
  • menstrual disorders,
  • sometimes infertility.

frequent acne and propensity to hypertrichosis (excessive body hair).Possible oily seborrhea of ​​the scalp and obesity.Oftalmonevrologicheskie violations occur even with small amounts of tumor.

In men, in addition to galactorrhea, may develop the following symptoms of pituitary adenoma:

  • gynecomastia (breast volume increase),
  • impaired sexual function,
  • developing impotence.

oftalmonevrologicheskih appearance of disorders in men indicates the presence of a tumor, which appeared beyond the sella.

somatotropinomy

If the tumor has started to develop in childhood or adolescence, is the development of gigantism or acromegaly (increased soft tissue mainly projecting body parts - nose, chin, fingers, limbs, etc.).

At the same time children and adults may develop obesity, hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, diabetes, decreased performance.Often there is increased sweating, the occurrence of skin warts, papillomas, excessive greasiness of the skin.

later develop neurological symptoms (polyneuropathy, sensory disorders in the limbs) and visual impairment.

kortikotropinomy and their symptoms

These rare pituitary adenoma accompanied by manifestations of pituitary - Cushing.They can ozlokachestvlyatsya, metastasize and accompanied by severe metabolic and hormonal levels, changes in skin pigmentation, as well as mental disorders.Neurologic and ophthalmologic disorders are rare.

Gonadotropinomy and tireotropinomy

rare tumors that can become a cause of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.They can be accompanied by hypoplasia of gonads in case of disease in childhood and adolescence.Adults can galactorrhea, visual impairment and neurological symptoms.

forecast

In identifying pituitary adenomas in the early stages, accurate diagnosis of the type of hormonal disorders and adequate therapy, emerged into adulthood, a favorable prognosis.

If pituitary adenoma originated in childhood, and her treatment began in adulthood, the prognosis is less favorable, but some of the manifestations of the disease may be irreversible.

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