12 August

Social attitudes of people with visual impairment

Any manifestation of a person's identity based on his past experience with regard to his associates and his relation to himself.In psychology this is called the social setting of the individual.

social setting of the individual is a state of psychological readiness of the person to behave in a certain way, it is based on past experience and adjusts its social behavior.In Western psychological science it is defined "The attitude" term.

social setting contains three elements:

  • cognitive, which determines the rational human activity;
  • affective defining the emotional evaluation of the object, the attitude of sympathy or antipathy with respect to the object of the world;
  • connotative, or behavior that involves a sequence of actions in relation to the object.

functions of social settings

In psychology have identified a number of basic functions of social settings, depending on trends in science, they can be called in different ways, but have the same meaning.

  • Instrumental (adaptive, utilitarian)
    function expresses the adaptive human behavior is based on the performance of the desired person in reducing losses.It directs man towards the setting of the majority.It is this feature lies in the basis of assessment of human society relationship to the object, and therefore, gives the opportunity to join the opinion of the majority.It allows a person to adequately interact with other members of the group.
  • Egozaschitnaya function.In this case, the social system works as a tool to protect the person from unpleasant emotions and stress, as well as contributes to the partial resolution of intrapersonal conflicts.However, the social setting can also be used as a means of confirmation of self-worth or importance of the group to which a person belongs.
  • expression function values, self-function.Social setting allows a person to express what is important to him, and to organize their behavior.This feature enables a person to self-determination in life, to understand what it is.
  • function enables the organization of knowledge to carry out the ordering of objects and environmental phenomena, due to this function in humans has the opportunity to match their knowledge, and their evaluation of incoming information from the outside world.

Types attitudes

  • social setting to an object, a kind of installation in which the person is willing to behave in a particular way.
  • Situational installation is a willingness to behave in a certain way in relation to one and the same object in different ways in different situations.
  • Perceptual setting determines the willingness to see what people want to see.
  • Partial (partial) installation and general (generalized) installation.Installation on site - always a private installation, perceptive installation becomes common when a large number of objects become objects of social attitudes.The process of the total private goes on increasing.

Types of plants according to their modality:

  • positive (positive);
  • negative (negative);
  • neutral;
  • ambivalent attitudes (ready to act both positively and negatively).

Specificity plants visually impaired

Installation individuals with regard to themselves and others has its own characteristics.This is due to the ratio of their appearance.Self-evaluation of the blind man in the area is composed of a relation to itself on the basis of their own ideas or initial impressions are sighted people.

Most psychologists believe that the greatest misfortune - it is not blindness itself as such, and external relation to the blind sighted.

During the life of the child self-esteem with impaired vision changes in the course of adaptation to his defect, children experience more psychological crises that are associated with the realization of their differences from others.This is particularly an issue arises during adolescence, is a violation of social relations due to its excellent understanding of the majority of their peers.

In providing remedial help to change the attitudes of blind children, and later blinded adults need to be considered:

  • attitude toward themselves and others;
  • representations of the past and the future;
  • relation to their claims and capabilities;
  • relation to the values ​​of his own and others;
  • the opportunity to realize their desires and satisfaction of interests;
  • relation to the inner circle and his assessment.

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