Tumors of the adrenal glands

Adrenal glands - paired endocrine glands, which, despite its small size, play an extremely important in the regulation of the body.

Malignant adrenal tumors are much less common (10%) than in benign (90%).In recent decades, due to a significant increase in the quality of instrumental diagnosis of adrenal tumors become apparent much more.

Types of adrenal tumors

One of the triggering factors in the formation of adrenal tumors are pituitary disease (most pituitary adenoma).However, the causes of adrenal tumors are still not fully understood.A role in their appearance, apparently plays a hereditary predisposition.

Localization of tumors are classified into:

  • primary formed in the adrenal glands themselves;
  • secondary - metastatic formed in the other body, but has spread from the bloodstream to the adrenal glands (which are always malignant tumors).

Classification by type of fabric, from which the tumor:

  • tumor of the adrenal cortex (adenoma, angioma, carcinoma, fibroma, lipoma, mielolipoma);
  • tumor of the adrenal medulla (neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, simpatogonioma, ganglioma).

Classification OVNikolaev (all of the following tumors can be either benign or malignant):

  • androsteroma;
  • corticosteroma;
  • kortikoandrosteroma;
  • kortikoestroma;
  • aldosteronoma;
  • combined tumor.

Manifestations of adrenal tumors

Depending on the hormone, which secretes the tumor develops its main symptoms.

tumors adrenal cortex may be manifested in the form of Cushing's syndrome, in the form of malignant hypertension with impaired renal function.This tumor may be of malignant or benign.

tumors of the adrenal medulla - a pheochromocytoma.They produce hormones that increase blood pressure, provoke hypertensive crises, which can lead to serious complications such as stroke.When pheochromocytoma may produce stressful hormones.

forecast

hormone-producing tumor without treatment progresses quickly, especially under stress and can lead to disability and even death.Therefore, patients suspected of having a tumor should be examined as soon as possible, and when the diagnosis to begin treatment immediately.

diagnosis of adrenal tumor lesion

adrenal tumors are diagnosed by ultrasound and imaging.If you suspect a malignant process is conducted radiography, radioisotope bone scan to exclude metastases.It determines the level of hormones in the blood and urine and the level adrenkortikotropnogo hormone in the blood (this is the pituitary hormone that regulates adrenal glands work).

Treatment Treatment is usually surgical, performed by open or endoscopic access - through several small incisions in the abdominal wall removed a tumor of the adrenal gland.If the tumor is malignant, the adrenal gland is removed together with the adjacent lymph nodes and fiber.

Phaeochromocytomas treated as radioactive isotopes, which are injected.Some types of tumors treated with chemotherapy.

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