Space and blindness

General facts about the spatial orientation of the blind.

work on the socio-psychological rehabilitation of the visually impaired persons with disabilities is aimed at the return of people who have lost vision to normal life and work, adaptation to society.

Tiflopsihologiya of spatial orientation

Modern tiflopsihologiya comes from the fact that blindness is not an excuse for inaction, and an occasion to work on themselves and go from passive to active life existence.

Socio-psychological rehabilitation includes an extensive system of medical, psychological, educational, social and public policies.They provide a device blind man to the surrounding reality, and living conditions are formed in such a way as to be accessible to blind.

most important place in the rehabilitation of the visually impaired spatial orientation takes.It is the basis of blind fault compensation.Any human activity is associated with the ability to navigate in space, not the exception, and the blind.

orientation Education - i

s a complex psychological and pedagogical process designed to ensure that the blind fully integrate into society.The orientation of the blind - is a process of self-employment.

main purpose of training - full or partial compensation of the defect, the creation of self-esteem, human revival of faith in their own strength, reduced anxiety levels.

Learning spatial orientation is not limited to programs of rehabilitation centers for the visually impaired and continues throughout life: their skills must be brought to automaticity.

Concepts

  • orientation - is the process of determining its location on the ground or a path relative to the direction of the horizon, subjects and objects of the world, which provide guidance on specific areas.
  • Landmark - natural or man-made object of the world, which is an important part of this area.Landmarks must carry new information about the world, but their excessive descriptiveness can be an obstacle in determining the way and the situation on the ground.
  • orientation Blind - the process of determining the position of a person areas with complete or partial loss of vision with intact sensory organs.When determining the position in space using residual vision, hearing, touch, smell.

Types landmarks

Depending on the source, supply information on environmental objects, isolated visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile guidance.

Subject guidelines are divided into fixed (static, not subject to major changes), time (dynamically changing over time), mobile and fixed.

also emit Benchmark - check their position on the ground with respect to home, office building or store.

There are also support guidelines, they are used all people, regardless of the level of, for example, all the inhabitants of the village know of any monument.

People who have lost their sight as adults perceive the world around them using the available visual impressions.

Types orientation

orientation by activity is divided into three-dimensional, household, object-cognitive (aimed at identifying the blind form of the subject, its texture, space position) labor.

By the nature of the space orientation can be mikroprostranstv and macrospace.

Mikroorientirovka is the perception and evaluation of things that are within close reach, which occur daily in close contact.

Makroorientirovka associated with the perception of the zone, do not directly come into contact with the person.It occurs within large spaces, associated with changes in the environment and therefore the most difficult to learn blind.

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