Osteopenia : invisible precursor of osteoporosis

osteopenia
Reduced bone mineral density of different degrees of severity observed in 75% of people over 50 years.

Osteopenia - a condition in which a marked decrease in bone mineral density and bone mass.However, the change is not so pronounced, to regard them as osteoporosis.The presence of osteopenia significantly increases the risk of subsequent fractures and osteoporosis grade, that is pronounced bone thinning.

The causes of osteopenia

bone mass reaches its peak around the age of 30.After that normal bones begin to thin, because the processes of bone resorption prevail over her education.The bones lose minerals, changing their structure and density, which increases the likelihood of fractures.And so the stronger and stronger bones to the middle of life, the more time it takes to osteoporosis.

Some people with osteopenia bone mass remains normal.They only reduced bone mineral density.

osteopenia depends on a number of a variety of factors:

  • female;
  • menopause, which causes a number of hormonal changes
    that affect the thinning of the bones;
  • thin physique;
  • race (white people often suffer from osteopenia and osteoporosis than black);
  • heredity;
  • old age;
  • prolonged use of corticosteroids (for inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, asthma), and gastric anticonvulsant drugs;
  • smoking and alcohol abuse;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • poor calcium and vitamin D nutrition;
  • consumption of carbonated beverages such as cola;
  • eating disorders and / or metabolism, which interfere with the absorption of nutrients in the intestine;
  • chemotherapy for malignant tumors;
  • exposure to ionizing radiation.

symptoms of osteopenia Osteopenia

not shown any noticeable symptoms.As the bones of exhaustion does not arise no pain, no visible changes in the eye.Increasing only the risk of fractures, especially against the background of inadequate load, such as a fall from a low height or lifting weights.

diagnosis of osteopenia

identify osteopenia allows the study of bone mineral density (BMD). most accurate and informative test is dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or densitometry .

This study is very sensitive and detects changes in bone density in the range of 2% per year.Standard X-ray is not suitable for this because they do not allow to detect minimal deviations in bone mass or density.

Experts advise not to forget about the state of their bones and men, despite the fact that representatives of the stronger sex are developing osteopenia and osteoporosis is not as common as in women.Reduced BMD in men is strongly dependent on power exercise and testosterone.

treatment of osteopenia

osteopenia treatment helps prevent the bone changes in the transition complete osteoporosis.

important factor in bone development is power - namely, adequate calcium content in food and vitamin D. The best sources of calcium - milk and milk products, leafy vegetables and specifically enriched foods, such as porridge, muesli, bread and juices.

Vitamin D is stored in the egg yolk, fatty fish (mackerel, salmon, salmon, sardines) and fish oil.Also, it is often added to milk and milk products.But mostly, this vitamin is produced in the skin by the action of sunlight, so you need enough exposure to the sun.

doctor may recommend supplementation, in which calcium is often combined with vitamin D.

Strong and sturdy bones are formed also under the influence of physical activity in response to stress and tension.Well help dancing, long walks, aerobics.The development of bone of the upper half of the body contribute to the training with the weighting, such as dumbbells, or expanders.

It should stop smoking and reduce your intake of alcohol and carbonated drinks.

With thinning of the bones and to help cope drugs.However, they are usually assigned in cases where the osteopenia in osteoporosis threatens to develop.In most cases, doctors use bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy and medications that affect the exchange of estrogen in the body.

Prevention osteopenia

osteopenia prevention methods are the same therapeutic measures.It is important to take care of a sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D from food, exercise regularly, and get rid of bad habits.

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