hemorrhagic diathesis - a large group of diseases of the blood system with a tendency toward increased bleeding with different causes and mechanisms of development, methods of diagnosis and treatment.
hemorrhagic diathesis widespread.In its origin they may be:
- primary (independently arisen disease);
- secondary, developing in various diseases (sepsis, infectious diseases, poisonings, the development of autoimmune and allergic processes, etc.).
- congenital (hereditary), hemorrhagic diathesis, who accompany the person throughout life lend themselves to therapeutic correction (Hemophilia, Glanzmann's disease, hemorrhagic telangiectasia);
- acquired hemorrhagic diathesis associated with various diseases, in varying degrees, affect the processes of blood coagulation and vascular wall;in addressing the main symptoms of these diseases tend to disappear and manifestations diathesis (hemorrhagic vasculitis, hemorrhagic purpura different nature thrombocytopathy hitting the walls of blood vess
els in diseases of the liver, poisoning, poisoning, drugs, etc.).
types of hemorrhagic diathesis
The basis of increased bleeding of release three main types of hemorrhagic diathesis relevant mechanisms of developing this condition.
- diathesis, related to violation of the permeability of vascular wall: hemorrhagic vasculitis, beriberi C and other hemorrhagic telangiectasia.The most common for beriberi, infectious diseases (meningococcal infection), amyloidosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic administration of corticosteroids.
- diathesis, related to the change in platelet count and their properties: hemorrhagic thrombasthenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, and others.The most common viral infections, exposure to radiation, chemotherapy, immune system disorders, liver disease, kidney and other diseases.
- diathesis, related to changes in the coagulation system:. Hemophilia A, B, C, etc. are not only innate, but can occur at kollagenozah, medication (anticoagulants, fibrinolytic agents), for beriberi, enteropathies and other diseases.
main manifestations of hemorrhagic diathesis
With all the hemorrhagic diathesis is the leading manifestation of increased bleeding with characteristic features of each type of diathesis.
With the defeat of the vascular wall in the mucous membranes, body and limbs appear small hemorrhagic rash of various shapes.And since such a rash and mucous membrane of the internal organs, patients often marked by the appearance of pain in the abdomen, blood in the urine impurities (microscopic hematuria), sometimes there is swelling and pain in the large joints.
If it affects the platelet component of the blood coagulation with little trauma and even for no apparent reason in the limbs and body skin appear hemorrhages of various sizes, they have a "patchwork" color, which is associated with different terms of their appearance.Another common manifestation of this type of hemorrhagic diathesis is a tendency to periodic bleeding (nasal, uterine, intestinal, stomach and other) and the development of anemia.There may be bleeding in the retina of the eye with loss of vision in the brain with the development of stroke symptoms.
When bleeding disorders (hemophilia) disease manifests itself in the form of hemorrhage occurring in the first years of a child's life with minimal injuries, bruises and even small scratches, may cause intramuscular bleeding and hemarthrosis - blood effusion in the joint cavity.
IMPORTANT! significant danger is any operation, even very accurate tooth removal dentist may lead to prolonged bleeding.
surveys with hemorrhagic diathesis
- holding general clinical blood, urine;
- blood chemistry;
- holding coagulation;
- determination of serum trace elements;
- determination of total blood coagulation time, prothrombin and thrombin tests to determine the concentration of prothrombin;
- holding thromboplastin generation test and correctional samples autokoagulogramme (hemophilia) and determining the level of the scarce factor in the patient's plasma after intravenous administration of its concentrate or plasma donation;
- conduct immunological tests (detection of antigenic components of the clotting factors);
- other tests (on indications).
Correction hemorrhagic diathesis
Conduct therapeutic measures based on consideration of all the factors in the development of a type of hemorrhagic diathesis, bleeding mechanism.The most commonly used causal and symptomatic therapy:
- for vasculitis, and thrombocytopenic purpura - corticosteroids;
- in avitaminosis C - ascorbic acid, rutin, vitamin RP;
- in repeated massive bleeding - surgery (removal of the spleen);
- hemophilia - a transfusion of fresh blood or plasma containing the missing patient blood clotting factors, vitamin K;
- in the development of anemia - iron supplementation, food with enough protein and vitamins;
- when haemarthrosis - joint puncture and removal of the streamed blood into its cavity;
- a complex of therapeutic and preventive measures (physiotherapy, physiotherapy, hydrotherapy, and so on. D.), Phytotherapy.