hepatocellular carcinoma - one of the most common malignant tumors of the liver.The main risk factor for the disease - chronic viral hepatitis C. There is evidence that viral DNA does not have a direct carcinogenic effect on cells, is beginning to show similar effects in long-term presence in hepatocytes, so basically the patients with hepatic carcinoma occur after 40 years.Most (80%) carcinoma is preceded by cirrhosis of the liver, so liver cirrhosis of viral hepatitis C is considered as a precancerous condition.
hepatocellular carcinoma, is classified in stages TNM (T - tumor, N - metastasized to nearby lymph nodes, M - distant metastases).Depending on the severity of each of the signs will be marked number from 0 to 4.
diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma is very difficult because of the differences between the recognition of the difficul
tests confirming damage liver tissue and disruption of its functions will be similar to those in liver cirrhosis.The only analysis for detecting malignant transformation - analysis AFP .Exceeding standards doctor usually appoints additional studies (such as ultrasound of the liver, liver biopsy, CT scan or MRI of the liver).
Treatment depends on the stage of the disease.The following methods are commonly used:
· liver transplantation (the gold standard for cancer of the liver, but is difficult to implement, requires the early stages of the disease, ie, I-II);
· resection of the lobe of the liver and regional lymph nodes (at the size of the primary tumor is not more than five centimeters and the presence of small metastases in regional lymph nodes);
· systemic chemotherapy (without much effect or minimal effect on the early stages);
· chemoembolization (used for inoperable patients with a slight violation of liver function or without it);
· percutaneous ethanol injection for the purpose of necrotic tumor;
· RF or ultrasonic ablation.
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