Retinitis pigmentosa : Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Retinitis pigmentosa, or primary pigmentary retinal dystrophy refers to hereditary diseases.It is diagnosed in a child almost from birth and manifests disturbances in the structure of the pigment epithelium and retinal photoreceptors.

Retinitis pigmentosa is one of the most common diseases of the retina, transmitted by inheritance, and is registered in one of the three thousand newborns on average.

Why develop retinitis pigmentosa

has now been found that pigmentary degeneration of the retina is associated with structural abnormalities (mutations) of several genes from 120, responsible for the synthesis and sharing of specific proteins during fetal development.When the probability of closely related marriages, birth of a child with this disorder increases significantly, especially if the family has already been cases of the disease.

signs of retinitis pigmentosa

For pigmented retinal dystrophy characterized by a triad of symptoms:

  1. atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium with narrowing of the
    smallest arteries and the presence of white pigment spots.
  2. presence around the papilla (perepapillyarno) special coupling (glial) tissue.
  3. presence in the fundus and in the course of the smallest veins pigment deposition chambers (also called "kostnymm corpuscles").

Subsequently pigment may spread to nearby parts of retina, which leads to a progressive reduction in visual acuity and even detachment of the vitreous from the deposition of pigment in it.

Retinitis pigmentosa is already in the initial stage may be accompanied by a violation of dark adaptation and development of night blindness.Often, these patients develop complications as early subcapsular cataracts, open angle glaucoma, keratoconus and myopia.

In the later stages of the disease in patients observed a tunnel central vision with a viewing angle of about 10-15 degrees.

rare forms of retinitis pigmentosa

  • In some cases, the development of retinitis pigmentosa manifests itself not a violation of the peripheral and central and color vision, while there is photophobia.Perhaps the development of night blindness - lack of daylight vision in bright light and twilight and night vision.
  • Occasionally found a form of retinitis pigmentosa, in which you can not reveal the pigment deposition, but other symptoms are the same.
  • belotochechnogo for retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by the presence of tiny white spots on the fundus of the eye pigment changes (painting "fabric, moth-eaten"), and other symptoms are the same as in a typical retinitis.

Diagnosis and treatment of pigmentary retinal dystrophy

Held ophthalmologist after the establishment of the exact form of the disease with the help of comprehensive eye examination and dynamic observation of the process of development.

specific and effective treatment of retinitis pigmentosa has not yet been developed, because the disease is genetic, but is widely used symptomatic therapy.Patients with pigmentary retinal dystrophy are at constant dispensary ophthalmologist.

patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa, recommended to wear special sunglasses that absorb short wavelengths of the solar spectrum, thus preventing retinal damage, in some cases, the doctor prescribes the wearing of special filters.

In addition, persons with pigmentary retinal dystrophy requires specific professional employment, as far as possible to the minimum requirements of the body.

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