Full examination of the heart : the basic techniques

Full examination of the heart : the basic techniques
Mortality from cardiovascular disease ranks first.Therefore, it is crucial to visit a cardiologist and undergo cardiac examination.

complete examination of the heart always starts with a visit to the cardiologist.

Heart Survey: initial reception

The reception cardiologist performs a thorough inspection of the patient to identify symptoms of lesions visible to the eye of the cardiovascular system (edema, cyanosis of the lips or limbs, etc.).

Then the doctor spends auscultation (listening to) of the heart to assess the heart sounds and the presence of abnormal noise;measures the pulse and blood pressure.

Of the methods that are available without any additional specialist equipment is also used percussion - is tapping on the heart area to determine its size and location of the change in pitch.

inspection allows the physician to identify possible diseases of the heart and circulatory system, as well as to appoint a further investigation, which has been held for instrumental methods with the help of

special equipment.

basic instrumental methods of study of the heart

1. Electrocardiography. This registration and further investigation of the electrical impulses generated by the heart muscle during its operation.In a healthy heart electrical stimulation is on conducting system of the heart and the various departments in a certain sequence.Its violation can be a manifestation of various pathological conditions.

Fluctuations potential difference between excited and unexcited muscles often written in the form of teeth, in the end it turns out specific curve - proper ECG.ECG registration is made apparatus, which is called - ECG.

ECG to evaluate the nature of the heart rhythm and electrical processes occurring in it.It is important for the diagnosis of various arrhythmias and other cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, ECG changes are also possible with myocarditis, metabolic and electrolyte disturbances, extracardiac diseases (emphysema, pleural effusion, obesity, etc.).

Electrocardiography can also be part of other research methods.

  • Holter (daily) monitoring - Hour ECG is used for monitoring critically ill or for the detection of recurrent disease states, such as transient arrhythmias.
  • Veloergometry - ECG recording during and after exercise.This method allows to determine the patient's sensitivity to load and use in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease, particularly angina pectoris.

2. phonocardiography. method of graphic recording of the sounds - tones and noise - the heart.Recording is performed using phonocardiography, which is most often the additional attachment to the electrocardiograph, as PCG necessarily recorded synchronously with electrocardiography.This method allows us to estimate the sound symptoms of various heart diseases, to identify more accurately the pathological noise.

3. Echocardiography. Ultrasound examination of the heart muscle.Currently, there are three versions of this method the heart study:

  • dimensional echocardiography of the heart provides the projection in one plane, is carried out to assess the thickness of the walls of the heart and body sizes, the valves, the heart's condition during and after the reduction;
  • dimensional echocardiography provides a three-dimensional image of the heart, is more informative;
  • Doppler echocardiography - a study of intracardiac blood flow, is used to assess the hemodynamic heart, diagnostic defects and shunts.

4. Radiological methods of heart research. Radiography (WG), and X-rays are used to determine the size and shape of the body and large pericardial vessels, the presence of fluid in the pericardial cavity.This method is associated with exposure to a patient with X-rays, therefore carried out only under strict indications when uninformative other methods.Radiography is contraindicated for pregnant women.

Variety WP - computed tomography.This method allows you to get more information, because the image of the heart is modeled on a computer screen, but radiation exposure when used more than usual during the WG.

5. Radionuclide methods of investigation of heart - is the introduction of metal into the bloodstream of radioisotopes and subsequent evaluation of their distribution.Different radioisotopes are used to determine the localization of myocardial infarction, accumulating in the lesion, the other - to help assess the condition of the heart cavities and large vessels.In this study, the body also turns the radiation effect.

6. Magnetic resonance imaging. Evaluation of computer images of the heart obtained due to the resonance of hydrogen nuclei contained in the cells, when exposed to the body of the magnetic field.It allows you to evaluate not only the structural changes of the heart tissue, but local chemical cell disorders: acidosis, ischemia, edema.

7. Angiocardiography.Introduction near substance having radiopacity.With this method it is possible to evaluate the many structural and physiological parameters of the heart muscle.Angiocardiography used and to clarify the indications for heart surgery.Always held simultaneously with cardiac catheterization (catheter is most often through the subclavian or femoral artery), which also carries the diagnostic value - allows you to get blood samples from the heart cavities, to evaluate the pressure inside the heart.

All of these methods are not used simultaneously in the same patient, for each selected one or more methods of the heart study depending on the state of the body, age and diagnosed pathology.

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