called helminthiasis diseases caused by helminths (worms).They result from contact with a human body eggs, larvae of parasites or cysts.The sources of infection are patients helminth people, animals, contaminated food and water.Helminthiases - a chronic disease, characterized by lengthy remissions.
Parasites exist not only in humans, they are in plants and animals.Human parasites parasitic in different organs: in the intestines, lungs, liver, and muscle.Worms never reproduce in the human body.
Most children suffer from helminthic invasion.Worms can cause serious chronic diseases: intestine (enterocolitis), pancreas (pancreatitis), stomach (gastritis), gallbladder (cholecystitis), both children and adults.
are more than 300 parasitic infestations.
most common parasitic infestation considered ascariasis and enterobiosis.Children are more common roundworm, pinworm and whipworm.
Depending on the location of the dwelling worms are:
1. Coelomic that live in the intestines: Ascaris, a tapeworm, hookworm, pinworm, dwarf tapeworm, whipworm.
2. Tissue living in the organs and tissues: liver (Echinococcus), in the brain (the larval stage of the pork tapeworm - cysticercus), pulmonary (lung fluke), muscle (Trichinella), etc.
Depending on.tract infection helminthiases divided into geohelminthiasis - worms from the soil fall on human food;contact helminthiases - parasites are transmitted from person to person;biogelmintozy - the disease occurs through the consumption of meat from infected animals.
intestinal worms can be transmitted through unwashed fruits, berries, vegetables and water (pinworm, roundworm, whipworm), from eating fish and meat of infected animals (trematodes, Trichinella).
Pets (cats and dogs) are transferred ascarids, and the dogs, in addition, are carriers of tapeworm that causes a person is very dangerous disease - Echinococcosis.
Flies and other insects, carrying on the legs and proboscis eggs of worms, promote infection.Worms never reproduce in the human body.
Developing parasite from egg turns into larvae and then into an adult.A person infected by swallowing the eggs of worms.In the intestine, the larvae from the eggs produced, which immediately begin to migrate to the organs and tissues, where they turn into adults.Exceptions are pinworms, which remain in the intestine.
Quite often, the way worms migration can be very difficult.Hookworm, penetrating through the skin migrates within a week on the circulatory system and into the upper small intestine.There larvae turn into adults and lay eggs.
Larvae of Ascaris from the intestine to the blood stream recorded in the lungs.Hence the growing larva through the bronchi and trachea enters the oral cavity, where it is swallowed again and again into the intestine, where it is converted into an adult.
symptoms due to changes in organs and tissues that cause the larvae or other forms of worms during their migration, are much more severe than those caused by adults.For example, pulmonary migration of Ascaris is often seen coughing, asthma attacks, fever.While the presence of adults in the intestine can occur almost asymptomatic.
clinical manifestations are very diverse.
are acute and chronic stage of the disease.Symptoms of helminthiasis depends on several factors: the type of helminth, its phases of development, location, duration of the disease.
acute stage begins from the moment of infection and lasts from 2 weeks to 2 months.The larvae have a mechanical and sensitizing effects, causing hemorrhage, forming eosinophilic infiltrates in the tissues, changing the overall reactivity of the organism.
initial stage of the disease can occur under the guise of a flu, bronchitis, acute respiratory infections.Appear malaise, fatigue, low-grade and higher temperature, runny nose, cough.Possible damage to the nervous system, which is manifested by fatigue, headaches, irritability.Often there is abdominal syndrome.
When strongiloidoze often have itchy skin and hives.When early symptoms of trichinosis are: puffy face, conjunctivitis, fever, muscle pain, there are different nature rashes on the skin.
chronic stage may last several months or even several years (in some invasions - several tens of years).Symptoms depend on the number of parasites, their habitats and feeding habits.At low intensity subclinical disease may occur, appearing only in the blood picture changes (eosinophilia).
Worms, suppressing human immunity, reduce the body's resistance to various diseases (like infectious nature, and viral).By absorbing the nutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates), parasites impair the metabolism, cause beriberi, violate the processes of absorption of food in the intestines.Some worms contribute to the development of anemia (ancylostomiasis).
Ascaris, penetrating into the biliary and pancreatic ducts, appendix and other organs, can cause obstructive jaundice, pancreatitis, appendicitis, liver abscess, and others.
the later stages of strongyloidiasis in connection with finding strongiloid in the gut is dominated by the phenomenon of duodenitis, enterocolitis, cholecystitis.When trichinosis disease can occur as meningoencephalitis, an increase in the liver, spleen, there is a focal pneumonia.
Recognition worm infestation is based on the basis of clinical and laboratory research (finding eggs and larvae in biological substrates: in the stool, in the duodenal contents, sputum, muscle).Eggs and larvae are detected by a microscopic method.Adult individuals or their fragments can be found macroscopic way.
for diagnosis of many helminth infections (trichinosis, cysticercosis, hydatid disease) are used immunological reactions - intradermal allergy tests, serological tests (koltsepretsipitatsiya, microprecipitation, complement fixation, immunofluorescence and others.).
Instrumental methods:. Ultrasound, X-ray method, computer and magnetic resonance tomography, edoskopiya and others are of great importance for the diagnosis of hydatid disease and tsistitsirkozov.
Treatment of helminthic infestation depends on many factors:. On the species of the parasite, its localization in the human body, the infection intensity, duration of disease, presence of complications, etc.
Treatment should be complex.In the early stages used symptomatic therapy: antihistamines, antispasmodics, drugs that restore intestinal microflora, etc. De-worming is a must event at enterobioze, for example, it is carried out for all the family...
Modern anthelmintic drugs can successfully cope with this task.The drug is administered once, but more treatment is carried out under a special scheme with repeated use of the drug in a few days.
Albendazole (Gelmadol) has a broad spectrum of action and is used for the treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, trihotsefaleze, Enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, opisthorchiasis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, and mixed helminth infections.
mebendazole (Vermakar, Vermoxum) used in Enterobiasis, ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, trihotsefaleze, trichinosis, taeniasis, echinococcosis, Alveococcosis mixed helminthiasis.
Pyrantel (Nemotsid, Gelmintoks) has no effect on the larvae during their migration, effective against adult and immature.The drug is prescribed for the treatment enterobiosis, ascariasis, hookworm disease.
Levamisole (Dekaris) is prescribed for ascariasis and ankilostomidoze.The drug has immunomodulatory effects on the human body.Calling the blockade of nerve ganglia parasite Dekaris promotes muscle paralysis and excretion of worms paralyzed from the human body within days after his admission.
Prevention Prevention is the strict adherence to hygiene and personal safety measures: Wash hands before eating, thoroughly washing fruits, berries and vegetables, good thermal processing of meat, especially pork, fish.You can not drink unboiled water from open reservoirs.Regularly conduct prevention and treatment of helminthiasis in domestic animals (cats and dogs).
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