Reactive Arthritis : What it is

Reactive Arthritis : What it is
Types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of reactive arthritis.

Reactive arthritis - inflammation of the joints after undergoing extra-articular infection (in other words, the body's response to infection).

Practically any bacterial and viral infectious diseases there is a possibility of joint damage.The risk of developing reactive arthritis is higher in patients with diabetes, digestive diseases and chronic kidney disease.

inflammatory process in the joints at the same time can develop in two main ways.

  • bacterial metastatic - the causative agent is stored in the blood or lymph joint, after penetrates intraarticular (synovial) fluid is a good breeding ground for microorganisms.This marked clinical manifestations with the gradual destruction of the joints (especially if the body is weakened and / or have immune problems).These arthritis can occur in tuberculosis, gonorrhea, pneumonia, abrasions, after injuries, operations and other diseases.
  • toxic and allergic characterizable milder, since
    the joint is not directly affected by infectious agents.The main cause of arthritis is currently considered too strong immune response to infection.These arthritis occur in brucellosis, hepatitis, rubella, gonorrhea, dysentery, infectious mononucleosis and other infections.

Reactive arthritis: symptoms

Almost all of reactive arthritis is quite monotonous: pain, swelling in one or more joints, fever and redness of the skin over the joint.For patients there is a weakness, fever and chills.Often the joints of the spine are involved in the process (detected by an average 20% of patients with reactive arthritis).

For diagnosis and destination aimed at the treatment of the causative agent is necessary to conduct a complete diagnostic evaluation.Only in this case you can be sure that the treatment will be effective, and reactive arthritis goes into a chronic form, and will not be accompanied by complications, and the destruction of the joint.

Reactive arthritis may occur after suffering flu, acute respiratory disease, infectious processes in the nasopharynx, flu, hepatitis and other similar diseases.

metagrippal arthritis often become chronic, but not observed the destruction of cartilage and involvement in valvular.During an exacerbation, which can last up to one month, dominated by swelling, difficulty of movement in joints and pain.In 15% of patients there is a shift in the acute form of chronic.

Brucellosis arthritis

disease is not as rare as it seems, especially for those who prefer to drink unboiled milk and products made from it, without heat treatment.

brucellosis arthritis - one of the most difficult flowing.Often accompanied by severe destructive processes, fever, enlarged liver and spleen.The inflammatory process involves the tissues surrounding the joint.In chronic forms of them can be deposited calcium.Most often affects the large joints: hips, knees, sometimes small nodules (fibrosis) formed under the skin.

Besides joint infection affects the spine and the iliac-sacral joint.If the time to carry out specific antibrutselleznoe treatment, the disease can pass quickly, without residual effects.If treatment is not carried out - the condition will gradually deteriorate.The disease is treated with an infectious diseases doctor and a rheumatologist.

Lyme disease (borreliosis)

Called spirochete Borrelia.Carriers spirochetes are blood-sucking insects (mites, lice) parasites in mice, voles, and occasionally wild animals.Susceptibility to Lyme disease is very high at any age.A risk factor is a visit not only wildlife, but also the city park area and garden plots.Mostly there is joint disease, but the disease can also spread to the kidneys, nervous system and heart.

Very often the disease begins as tick-borne encephalitis: fever, vomiting, chills and headache.After mainly affects only joints.Joint pain is quite intense, but swelling and other obvious signs of inflammation are absent.In some cases, there may also appear a lot of pain in the spine.Unfortunately, all of these symptoms are non-specific and difficult to diagnose disease.

only sign of allowing suspected borreliosis, is an annular erythema (redness of the skin): red spots clear edge, center pale light possible itching and soreness.Spot gradually expanded, its dimensions can be up to 10 cm or more.In the treatment of specific antibiotics it disappears within two weeks.Sometimes on-site erythema remains light pigmentation.When the tick bite should immediately contact the emergency room after - occur in infectious disease physician.Reiter's Syndrome

affects the joints, urinary tract, skin and eyes.

95% in men 20-50 years of age.The disease is transmitted mainly in sexually least - through the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract.Diagnosis is based on laboratory research, as well as a combination of arthritis with two of the following diseases:

  • urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), caused by the gonococcus, chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma or other pathogens;
  • prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland);
  • conjunctivitis (pinkeye);
  • dermatitis (skin rash in the form of pink scaly plaques are very similar to psoriasis, appears as small blisters on the skin of the genitals, palms and soles of the feet);
  • manifestations of stomatitis (sores in the small of the mouth).

Reiter's syndrome arthritis tends to be chronic, especially if no specific therapy aimed at the main pathogen (usually a chronic inflammatory disease of the reproductive organs) was carried out.The most commonly affected large lower limb joints (knees, ankles, hips, at least - shoulder).At the same time dominated by persistent pain and defeat periarticular tissues.Swelling are mild or absent.

Gonococcal arthritis

usually occurs when infected with gonococcus - the causative agent of gonorrhea, which can be diagnosed and not because of the erased flow.Attempts to cure gonorrhea alone often cause a chronic process, leading to the emergence of chronic erased.

If you do not conduct timely specific treatment of gonorrhea, arthritis is progressing gradually, causing the destruction of the tissues of the joints in places of fixing them ligaments, tendons, muscles, the development of contractures and later ankylosis, leading to disability.The most common arthritis develops in the ankle and knee joints.

diagnosis of reactive arthritis

  • general analysis of blood and urine;
  • biochemical blood tests (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, protein fractions and other factors);
  • serology serum nodules (tophi) and intra-articular (synovial) fluid on the content of specific antibodies (to the pathogens that caused disease);
  • X-rays of the joints;
  • magnetic resonance imaging of the joints;
  • ultrasound of the joints, soft tissues and organs of the abdominal cavity;
  • counseling related professionals (rheumatology, urology, infectious diseases, etc.).

treatment of reactive arthritis

timely treatment of reactive arthritis with good results.In some cases it is possible to achieve full recovery or permanent remission.Here are the basic principles.

  • Specific therapy (in infectious disease, urology, gynecology and others) - is aimed at removing the main pathogen.
  • nonspecific therapy - aimed at reducing the symptoms of the disease (at the rheumatologist, arthrology or therapist).
  • Chondroprotectors (drugs that promote the restoration of metabolic processes in the cartilage to its better safety).
  • para-articular and intra-articular corticosteroids and hondroprotektorami blockade.
  • Symptomatic therapy: drugs to improve microcirculation in the tissues of the joint, to relieve muscle spasms, anti-oxidants, vitamins, analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other
  • Local therapy (ointments, baths, wraps and compresses)..
  • physiotherapy are also widely used, massage, osteopathy, physiotherapy, cryotherapy, reflexology and other treatments.

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