modern name of disease "gonorrhea" was introduced Galen, who in II.BC.e.wrongly interpreted the discharge from the urethra of men as semyatechenie (Greek gone -. the seed, rhoia - expiration).Despite the fact that the term "gonorrhea" incorrectly reflects the essence of the disease, it is firmly established in medicine.In German-speaking countries, the disease is sometimes referred to as "the clap", and in France - "ophthalmia".
Neisser - the scientist who discovered in 1879 that the causative agent, said: "I did not hesitate to declare that its consequences have disease gonorrhea is incomparably more dangerous than syphilis."Indeed, gonorrhea brings a lot of suffering to people in the sexually active age.This was particularly evident in the period when the medical practice has not been antibiotics.Of course, gonorrhea not as
Recently, there is a tendency to an increase in infections, sexually transmitted infections, especially in young people from 20 to 35 years.Perhaps this can be explained by the early onset of sexual activity, the presence of multiple sexual partners, a certain freedom of sexual relations, disregard of measures profilaktikezabolevany sexually transmitted, the increasing incidence of self-medication, and many other factors.
Of all diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, gonorrhea vstechaetsya most often.Gonorrhoea is gonococcus, it refers to gram paired cocci, shaped like coffee beans, which concave surface facing each other.Microbes are located intracellularly priemuschestvenno in leukocytes, extracellular less deep tissues.Gonokokki highly sensitive to the effects of environmental factors: are killed at temperatures above 55 ° C, drying, processing, antiseptic solutions, under the influence of direct sunlight.Outside gonokokki coated capsule substance, making them difficult to digest.The persistence of infection is possible within the white blood cells, Trichomonas, epithelial cells (phagocytosis unfinished), which complicates treatment.
Widespread use of antibiotics has led to changes in morphology and biological properties gonokkoka: there were giant resistant L-shape that are difficult to penicillin treatment.Persistence Lform complicates diagnosis and treatment of disease and promotes the survival of infection in the body as a result of reversion to vegetative forms Gonococcus not form exotoxin.When gonorrhea death released endotoxin, and it was he who causes a variety of degenerative and destructive changes in the tissues, the development of adhesive processes and others.
Gonococcus its viability fresh pus to dry.
main route of infection - sexual (from an infected partner).Much less often, gonorrhea is transmitted by household (through dirty linen, towels, washcloths), mostly girls.The possibility of intrauterine infection has not been proven.
Gonokokki affect mainly the departments of urinary tract, mucous membrane of the cervix, fallopian tubes, urethra, lacunar and large vestibular gland.When genitalnooralnyh contacts can develop gonorrheal pharyngitis, tonsillitis and stomatitis, with genitalnoanalnyh - gonorrheal proctitis.After contact with the infectious agent in the mucous membrane of eyes, including the passage of the fetus through an infected birth canal, there are signs of gonococcal conjunctivitis.The wall of the vagina, covered with stratified squamous epithelium, resistant gonococcal infections.However, in some cases (pregnancy, girls and postmenopausal women), when the epithelium thins, or becomes loose, it may develop gonococcal vaginitis.Gonococci entering the body quickly fixed on the surface of epithelial cells by pili and then penetrate deep into cells and intercellular gap subepithelial space, causing destruction of the epithelium and the development of inflammatory reactions.
gonorrhea infection in the body often extends for a stretch (canalicular) from the lower divisions urinary tract in top.More rapid progress often promote adhesion to the surface of sperm gonorrhea and trichomonas transferred inside.
Sometimes gonococci enter the bloodstream, leading to a generalization of the infection and the appearance of extragenital lesions, among which is most common joint disease.Less developed gonorrheal endocarditis and meningitis.In response to the introduction of the pathogen of gonorrhea antibodies produced in the body, but when this immunity ineffective.A person can be infected with gonorrhea and hurt many times.This can be explained by the antigenic variability of gonorrhea.
According to WHO, the disease is recorded at 200 million people annually.In Russia, after a decline in 1990, growth in the incidence of gonorrhea in 2001 increased to 102.2 per 100 thousand. Population.
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