January 30 - World Day of the sick with leprosy.Despite all efforts, mankind has not yet got rid of the "lazy death."And now there are epidemiological centers of the world, where you can catch leprosy.
- Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae - relatives of the tubercle bacillus.The incubation period of leprosy is very long.There are cases when the disease developed in 40 years after infection.On average, from the moment of infection to the development of symptoms takes place 3-5 years.But perhaps the development of the disease 9 months after infection.
- leprosy begins with the appearance of pigmented spots on the skin or granulomas - specific nodules, which grow to form a fold, ulcerate.At the same time affects the nerves - there is a violation of the sensitivity.To diagnose the disease the doctor makes a scraping of granulomas, which are found in Mycobacterium leprae.Patients prescribed antibiotics, vitamins, physiotherapy to restore innervation.
- Mycobacterium leprae affects mainly the skin and p
eripheral nerves, thus causing disfiguring hypertrophic folds, granuloma and ulcers on the skin, developing sensory disturbances and motor abilities.If untreated, the process also affects the upper respiratory tract, eyes, and internal organs.Develop morphological disorders that lead to disability.When possible disfiguring effects of plastic surgery.
- In the Middle Ages leprosy terrified the inhabitants of almost all countries - it was spread all over the place.leprosy disease became a death sentence - retracted from the patient's family, and he went to the leper colony, where he spent the rest of his life.The treatment of leprosy did not exist.It is now possible complete cure of the disease.Since 1995, WHO has provided free access to treatment for all leprosy patients.Fixed assets that are going to including in the day care to patients with leprosy.
- Until the twentieth century, the specific treatment of leprosy did not exist.Only in the 40s of the last century has been synthesized the drug dapsone, is able to kill mycobacteria.However, 20 years later I discovered the causative agent of leprosy resistance to dapsone, rifampicin and were open and clofazimine.Currently, all three drugs are part of a combined treatment of leprosy and applied together.Treatment of the disease for a long period - from 2 to 8 years.In this third of the patients lived in a leper colony, and the rest are treated as outpatients and are at the dispensary.
- Currently, leprosy is found in tropical and subtropical regions: Africa and Asia, and Central and South American countries, rare cases recorded in the US, Europe, the former Soviet Union countries.Most it is common in India, Brazil, Burma, Nepal and some parts of Madagascar, Indonesia.Today leprosy ill about 200 000 people per year.
- Infected with leprosy can be from a sick person with direct and prolonged contact with the skin or the patient's belongings, as well as inhalation of mycobacteria from the air that the patient breathes.Pathogenicity of Mycobacterium leprae is quite low: only 5-10% of people who have contact with her really sick.Those most at risk are children, the elderly and persons with reduced immunity.Men are more susceptible than women.Poor sanitary conditions increase the risk of infection.
- Prevention of leprosy does not exist yet.There is evidence that vaccination against tuberculosis and prevent the development of leprosy - its protection is estimated as 26 per cent.Create a vaccine based on killed Mycobacterium leprae.But its development is not yet complete.Basic preventive measures that prevent the spread of the disease, reduce to early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy through combination therapy.And they have already produced results: according to the WHO, over the past 20 years have been cured more than 14 million leprosy patients.incidence ratio decreased from 20 to 1 in 10 000 people.
- Scary ulcers, falling off limbs and suppurating wounds, so to scare people in the Middle Ages, due to Mycobacterium leprae do not as such, but the defeat of the peripheral nerves and the addition of a secondary bacterial infection.This can be avoided with timely treatment and adequate care for the sick.
- In 1948, at an international congress in Havana, it was decided to exclude from the vocabulary of the world the word "leper."It was believed that it bears sverhnegativnuyu color, puts a stigma on patients suffering from leprosy, and leads to discrimination against them.However, until today the word and the accompanying fear of not being able to eradicate from public consciousness.How could not win, and the disease itself.