10 unknown facts about cancer

10 unknown facts about cancer
February 4 - World Cancer Day.To this day, we made a selection of little-known and new facts about the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

1. Cancer may develop any person, regardless of age, gender, or financial situation.Cancer - the second cause of death in many countries.

However, according to the WHO, more than 30% of cancers can be prevented.In the first place, avoiding strong carcinogens such as tobacco smoke, and also due to vaccination against infections that cause cancer, such as hepatitis B virus and human papilloma virus.

In addition, modern medicine is fully heals many forms of cancer by detecting them early on.

2. cause of death in cancer are metastases - malignant cells which spread throughout the body and accumulate in the target tissues, disrupting the operation of the relevant authorities.The presence of metastases is 3-4-th stage of the disease.In Russia, 40% of cancers detected by 3-4 second stage, which leads to a one-year mortality rate is quite high - more than 26% .

3. most common cancer in men:

  • cancer of the trachea, bronchus, lung (18.7%);
  • prostate cancer (12.1%);
  • skin cancer (10%);
  • stomach cancer (8.8%);
  • colon cancer (5.9%).

most frequent cancer in women:

  • breast cancer (20.7%);
  • skin cancer (14.5%);
  • endometrial cancer (7.5%);
  • colon cancer (7.1%);
  • stomach cancer (5.7%);
  • cervical cancer (5.3%).

Children under 14 years old is the most vulnerable in terms of developing cancer hematopoietic system.The most common forms of cancer - hematological malignancies (46.5%).In second place - brain cancer and other parts of the nervous system (17%).

It is these forms of tumors should be given more attention and to prevent - especially screening tests.

4. There are so-called precancerous diseases that contribute to the development of cancer.This primarily refers to all forms of inflammation.Chronic bronchitis, chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, cirrhosis, hepatitis, ulcerative colitis can become the basis for the development of the respective tumors.

addition to precancerous diseases include: cervical erosion, fibroadenomatosis and breast cysts, ovarian cysts, papillomas, polyps, bronchiectasis ...

precancerous lesions turn into cancer in 0.1-5% of cases.Patients with these abnormalities should pay more attention to preventive examinations in the relevant specialists and treatment of chronic diseases.

5. believed that cancer cells are formed in the body permanently (the exact frequency of their occurrence is not established), they appear as a result of a violation of the process of cell division, while in the most actively regenerating tissues (those where the cells divide more frequently than others) the numbermost such pathological cells.

This explains the fact that most of tumor derived from epithelial tissue - the most active in terms of cell division.Moreover, the larger the cell division cycle has passed, the more likely an error, and as a result, cancer cells are able to divide uncontrollably.

All this explains the fact that the cancer disease incidence peaks in the age over 60 years.

6. Normally, cancer cells are recognized and destroyed by the immune system.When she is not doing its job, there is cancer.Therefore, all the factors that weaken the immune system, are both factors that provoke cancer.Among them are congenital abnormalities of the immune system, and receive immunosuppressive drugs, and a lack of vitamins and nutrients, unhealthy lifestyle, alcohol abuse, smoking, and excessive UV exposure, etc.

7. About a quarter of cases of cancer patients go to the doctor at a late running, not subject to radical treatment of cancer stage.

reasons for late treatment several:

  • weak symptoms in the early stages of the disease;
  • ignorance of the patients symptoms of cancer;
  • fear of the diagnosis;
  • disbelief in the curability of cancer.

The rate of tumor growth are different: some are doubled every few days, while others take years growth.Therefore, in the event of the first warning signs of a doctor should be treated without delay.This will help increase the chances of recovery, as well as maintain the appropriate authority and ability to work.

8. Preventive screening tests for early detection of cancer:

  • mammograms - X-rays of the breast, performed for all women older than 45 years annually;
  • chest X-ray - X-rays of the lungs, is held annually to adults;
  • analysis of fecal occult blood test - revealing a small amount of blood in the stool, which appears as a result of mikrokrovotecheniya in the intestine is carried out after 50 years every 5 years;
  • Pap test - cytological analysis of cervical smears for cervical cancer prevention, healthy women, he held every 2-3 years to 65 years;
  • blood test for PSA (prostate-specific antigen), a marker for prostate cancer, it is recommended to men over 40 times a year.

9. blood test for PSA has recently caused controversy among doctors and scientists.It turned out that it identifies all forms of degeneration of prostate cells, even those that do not lead to the development of the disease (tumor growth, disruption of the body structure and the formation of metastases).

the term 'clinically insignificant cancer ", that is, a malignant tumor that does not manifest itself and does not affect vital functions.

started talking about cancer overdiagnosis.At the same time it is not clear how early on to distinguish a tumor that will grow and metastasize, from the one that did not show during the patient's life.While the differences are determined by clinical and laboratory parameters.Geological prospecting methods of genetic analysis.

10. metastasis - cancer cells is that the bloodstream or lymphatic spread to other organs of the body, where they form a new growth point - secondary tumors.However, tumor cells are found in other organs do not always begin to divide - it depends on your own immunoresistance tissue that can prevent metastasis to grow.

Everything else, metastases may differ greater resistance to treatment of the primary tumor.Some scientists believe , that for the treatment of cancer is much more important to study and stop the processes of metastasis than primary tumor growth directly.

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