for malignant tumors in children, as in adults, is characterized by the so-called syndrome of small signs that a few months before setting the parents of the diagnosis (often already in retrospect) noted in a child:
These symptoms may be the first manifestation of a tumor process, but often go unnoticed by parents and doctors, which leads to the fact that the tumor has already diagnosed at a late stage, when it is inoperable or any metastases.
stems from a lack of attention may be considered, including the absence of parents and pediatricians oncological vigilance against children because cancers have traditionally been considered a pathology older.
Unfortunately, in Russia the situation is not uncommon when parents are not at first notice the common "minor" symptoms, then doctors for a long time can not diagnose: an ordinary polyclinic pediatrician for 30 years of practice may be faced with a malignant process only 2-3 times.
As a result, only 10% of children fall into the oncology clinic with the 1st stage of the disease.About 75% of children come to oncologists since 3-4th stage, when treatment is more difficult, traumatic and expensive.And if the early stages of cancer favorable prognosis - 95-97% of patients can be cured, then the 4th stage the survival rate barely reaches 10%.
Of the 100 000 children 10-15 diagnosed a malignant tumor each year.Those most at risk are children under 4 years of age - it is in relation to them it is necessary to exercise the utmost caution oncology.Parents must be aware of the likelihood of malignancy in a child and know the early warning signs (in addition to the common symptom).
most common tumor in infants - neuroblastoma.It develops from the embryonic neural tissue and is characterized by the fact that over time neuroblastoma cells can differentiate and become benign, and in some cases disappear altogether - cells that is called ripening, because for some reason do not have time to do it in utero.
However, most often diagnosed the tumor progresses and metastasizes.In the later stages of the disease can only help the radioactive iodine therapy (MIBG-therapy), which accumulates in the tumor and causes its destruction.This therapy in Russia is not carried out, and the children have to send abroad to pay (and very expensive) treatment.
There are methods of screening for neuroblastoma - a determination of the level of catecholamines in the urine.This screening test made compulsory in Japan, resulting in a decreased incidence of disseminated neuroblastoma, increased overall survival of children have decreased the cost of treatment of such patients.
On the other hand, the number of cases - that is, screening identifies those cases of neuroblastoma, which alone could end favorably.The debate about the feasibility of screening for neuroblastoma continue, many Russian oncologists believe screening impractical.However, this does not prevent the parents themselves do the appropriate analysis of the child in the 6 months after the incidence of neuroblastoma in 2 times more likely than phenylketonuria screening being done in the hospital.
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Parents noticed the child change behavior, fatigue, lethargy, decreasedof appetite, weight loss and other warning signs, you must first visit a pediatrician (should insist on a full examination, measurement of height, weight, abdominal palpation, lymph nodes, temperature measurement), deliver advanced blood test, urine test, do an ultrasound of the internal organs, consult withneurologist and ophthalmologist.If there is suspicion of a pediatrician prescribe X-rays of the chest, limbs.
This examination will in any case not out of place, and in the case of malignant process will identify it at an early stage, which will ensure the success of treatment and the prognosis is good.
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