Myocarditis : an inflammation of the heart wall

Causes, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis.

myocarditis called an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle, accompanied by a violation of its functions.The prevalence of myocarditis is unknown, as is often the disease occurs without significant clinical manifestations and ends complete recovery.The disease can develop at any age, but it is believed that it is a disease mainly of young people.The average age of onset is 30-40 years.Women suffer more often than men, but men more likely to have severe myocarditis.

Causes of myocarditis.

Causes of myocarditis are quite diverse.More than half the cases the disease is caused by infection, and are called infectious myocarditis.Call the disease may virtually any infectious agent, but the agent is most commonly viruses (influenza viruses and Coxsackie type B, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, measles, chicken pox, herpes, hepatitis B and C, human immunodeficiency virus, etc.).Bacterial myocarditis less prevalent, but more severe.The most famous is the diphtheria

myocarditis, which complicates the course of diphtheria in 10-25% of cases.It is necessary to say a few words about myocarditis caused by β-hemolytic streptococcus group A, it is a manifestation of rheumatic heart disease, myocarditis is fundamentally different from other natural and requires special methods of treatment and prevention.The doctor, make diagnoses "myocarditis", often has in mind the nature of the rheumatic diseases.

Myocarditis may be accompanied by some systemic connective tissue diseases such as lupus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis.

Allergic myocarditis occur when medication (some antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the introduction of serums and vaccines) and as a result of the bite of insects.

Myocarditis and develop under the influence of physical factors: for burns, irradiation;may occur during cardiac transplant rejection.

In some cases, the cause remains undiagnosed myocarditis.

manifestations of myocarditis.

most common viral myocarditis, but because the majority of patients, there are indications of the transferred (1-2 weeks until the complaints of the heart), infectious disease (fever, runny nose, sneezing, feeling of "ache" in the body, painmuscle and joint pain, weakness, and sometimes frustration of a chair, and abdominal pain).

clinic disease depends on the extent and localization process, so even a small focus of inflammation in the conducting system of the heart may lead to severe cardiac arrhythmias.

When malosimptomno current complaints from the heart can not be at all.Weakness, fatigue, low-grade fever are regarded as residual effects after suffering flu.

In other cases, patients report pain in the heart, dull, aching, often long and monotonous, usually without propagation (irradiation) to other areas of the chest.Pain not associated with physical activity and tested after administration of nitroglycerin.Palpitations and disruption of the heart (due to the development of a variety of arrhythmias) can occur at rest and aggravated by physical exertion.As a result of severe cardiac arrhythmias myocarditis can be a cause of sudden death.

With widespread inflammation is expanding cavities of the heart and at the forefront of the clinical picture are the manifestations of heart failure (shortness of breath, swelling in the legs, pain in the right upper quadrant).

The diagnosis of myocarditis plays an important role instrumental examination of the patient (laboratory data, electro and echocardiography, chest radiography, scintigraphy mokarda).According to modern concepts definitive and reliable diagnosis of myocarditis can only be set by the results of intravital heart biopsy, but in actual clinical indication for this study can serve only a severe form of the disease resistant to medical therapy carried out, when the question about the heart transplant.

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