Yersinia pestis (Latin Yersinia pestis.), Opened in 1894, regardless of the French scientist A. Yersenom (1863-1943) and a Japanese scientist S. Kitazato (1852-1931).
Plague manifests itself in a serious general condition, fever, lymph nodes, lungs and other internal organs.The disease is highly contagious, belongs to the group of quarantine infections, has a high mortality rate.
The incubation period lasts from several hours to 3-6 days.Appears chills, increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, the temperature rises sharply to 39ºS.The disease is accompanied by delusions, confusion, incoordination.
There are several forms of plague: bubonic, pneumonic, septic and lightweight (small tent).
Natural sources of Yersinia pestis - rodents (rats, mice, rabbits, gophers, marmots, squirrels), as well as wild dogs, cats and camels.They contract the disease through their own or bites from fleas, are its carriers.
Another way of transmission - contact, and airborne (from a sick person).
plague microbe is not afraid of low temperatures and freezing, in the corpses of animals can be kept up to 60 days, however, when using disinfectants and by boiling it perishes.
known plague pandemic in history:
Such a high mortality rate in the Middle Ages due to lack of proper treatment (cutting and burning plague buboes) and non-compliance of quarantine measures.There are also data on the use of the material infected with the plague as a biological weapon.
Currently, around 2.5 thousand per year are recorded in the world. Ill.. About 7% -
According to WHO, about 40 thousand cases in 24 countries, mortality was recorded from 1989 to 2004.In Russia in 1979 there were no cases of the disease, but in the territory of the natural foci of infection risk is present for more than 20 thousand. Man.The situation is compounded annual detection of cases in neighboring countries (Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and China).
plague treated with antibiotics (for the first time succeeded in 1947 with the help of streptomycin, developed by the Research Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene of the Red Army), sulfonamides and anti-plague serum.Sick and exposed him isolate people (especially for the pneumonic form).
To prevent use of rodent control and the establishment of anti-plague facilities in endemic areas.There is also a vaccine that reduces the severity of the disease that does not protect 100%.
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