Smallpox - the viral nature of the disease has specific symptoms, such as the characteristic rash on the body, leaving behind scars.
The disease is highly contagious, transmitted by airborne droplets or through contact with the patient and his belongings.Once people are ill with smallpox.
disease incubation period of the disease is around 12 days.Onset is usually acute, accompanied by severe pain in the body, fever, chills, headache.
At 2-4 day rashes appear first.By the 4 th day of the patient's condition is improving and there is a classic smallpox rash that passes in its development a few steps.On the 8-9 th day of illness, at the stage of suppuration bubbles, the temperature rises again, there is delirium, hallucinations.
for two weeks or there is recovery of the patient with smallpox, a disease ends in death.
Smallpox often end up developing serious complications - sepsis, meningitis, encephalitis, pneumonia and other, often leading to death of the patient.Inflammatory eye disease smallpox - panoftalmity, keratitis, iritis - become a cause of total or partial blindness.As
smallpox epidemics of smallpox managed to stop after the WHO had conducted a worldwide vaccination against the disease.
first attempts to develop immunity to smallpox virus were made in the East and in China in the times of the early Middle Ages.inoculation method consisted in inoculation smallpox pustules mature content of the patient, this led to a mild form of the disease and a lifelong immunity.
In 1718 Variolation pioneered in Europe the wife of the British ambassador in Constantinople, instilling his son.But variolation as a mass protection against smallpox method is not caught on - it is often lethal, became the cause epidemics and does not always protect themselves from re-infection.
first step in the fight against smallpox was the opening of the British scholar Edward Genero, who himself suffered the unfortunate boy Variolation.Genero proved that the person vaccinated with cowpox, becoming immune to smallpox kind.This event was a turning point in the history of smallpox vaccination.
gradually vaccination against smallpox becomes mandatory in Europe.In Russia the first vaccination against smallpox began to do in 1801, but the vaccine becomes mandatory only in 1919.The result of mass smallpox vaccination was the elimination of the disease in the territory of the USSR by 1936.After that, the country has seen only isolated outbreaks of smallpox, imported from Africa and Asia.
In South America, Africa and Asia, people suffered from smallpox until the second half of the XX century, the disease has been eradicated since the adoption in 1967 by the WHO decision on global vaccination of the entire population of the globe.In 1978, the last case of smallpox laboratory contamination was detected.The disease is considered to be destroyed in 1980.
since 1980 in any country no cases of smallpox.The virus is particularly dangerous infections at the moment is preserved only in two microbiological laboratories in Russia and the United States.Therefore, since 1980, vaccination against smallpox was discontinued, it is believed that the virus in nature is no longer met.
Smallpox - is the only disease that mankind has completely defeated by a mass vaccination.
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