Causes of anemia

Anemia - a lesion of peripheral blood, characterized by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes and (or) hemoglobin.

anemia may be an independent disease of the blood system, or a symptom of other diseases of the body.The figures of the body measured in grams per liter of blood.Normally it women 120g / l, men 135 g / l., With anemia marked reduction of these indicators.

main types of anemia

There are many causes of anemia, which form the basis of their medical classification, making it a large and cumbersome.However, only an exact knowledge of the causes of anemia allows the doctor to choose the best way to treat them.There are 3 main types of anemia, depending on the basic process that served as the cause of anemia:

  • Anemia associated with acute or chronic blood loss.
  • Anemia associated with impaired hematopoiesis process:

- iron deficiency,

- anemia associated with deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid,

- aplastic and hypoplastic anemia, resulting from toxic effects on bone marrow

  • hemolytic anemia resulting from increased destruction of red blood cells.

anemia often occur as a result of a combination of several of these mechanisms.

most frequent causes of anemia:

  • Iron deficiency in low content in the food or because of insufficient assimilation of his body.Most often it is acute blood loss and chronic blood loss in small but frequent bleeding: bleeding erosions and ulcers of any localization, increased bleeding of mucous long-term use of certain drugs (aspirin, indomethacin, corticosteroids, etc.) heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding hemorrhoids, and others.
  • deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid are usually associated with a lack of its production in the body in patients with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, alcoholism, goiter, a condition after resection of the stomach and intestines, etc.), as well as a low content of folic acidfood.
  • Increased destruction (breaking) of red blood cells observed in neonatal hemolytic anemia, transfusion of incompatible blood in the group and rhesus hemolytic poisoning toxins (poisons of snakes, insects, some industrial poisons).
  • diseases of the bone marrow of different nature (tumor, toxic, drug, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, chronic liver disease and kidney failure and other)
  • Communicable parasitic and viral diseases (including HIV, malaria and other infections).
  • hereditary (genetic) diseases that are transmitted in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive manner, as well as by gender.

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