Leishmaniasis - an infectious disease that is caused by protozoan Leishmania and is transmitted by mosquitoes.
causative agents of leishmaniasis are protozoa of the genus Leishmania.Total dangerous for humans 17 species of Leishmania.
Some of them can become a cause of cutaneous forms of the disease, while others - his visceral species that affects some of the internal organs.
Leishmania transmission occurs either by mosquitoes or through the use of contaminated syringes and needles in the community freaky.
for Leishmania is characterized by a rather elegant breeding cycle, in which the body of a potential victim - human or animal - is betrayed passive behavior of the pathogen.
In the body of the female mosquito parasite is in the form of promastigote (oblong
few days later promastigote becomes so much that they are their bodies and gel they emit overlap lumen.Because of this, at the next bite of a female mosquito can not swallow and regurgitate promastigote forced deep into the victim's skin.
Arrived on the damage to the skin, neutrophils (the blood cells of the host organism) is taken up by phagocytosis promastigote (enveloping them around).
promastigote do not manifest themselves, being inside the neutrophils.As a result, when neutrophils are destroyed by macrophages of the immune system of the host, they are inside their vacuoles and there converted into amastigote (truncated circular and flagellum).
amastigote able to eat inside vacuoles, and actively proliferate, than they are doing during the day after the transformation.Once in the bloodstream, they infect more new cells.
If an infected person during this time biting mosquito amastigote in its midgut pass into promastigote state and the cycle repeats.
visceral form of leishmaniasis, the incubation period (time from the moment a mosquito bite to onset of symptoms) lasts from 20 days to 10 months.
disease develops gradually.Appear fever and weakness, an increase in the lymph nodes, spleen and liver are simply enormous.May start bleeding and diarrhea.The skin becomes dark gray in color - hence the second name of the disease - "kala azar" black fever.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is developing rapidly and is not distributed throughout the body - only in the skin.On the site of the bite formed granulomas - growths of inflamed skin tissue in the form of nodules.Gradually, these places are formed ulcers.
For a number of manifestations of leishmaniasis may be similar to brucellosis, Hodgkin's disease, typhoid and anthrax.
Diagnosis is based on the results of blood analysis, and microscopic examination of the material ulcers, spinal fluid and lymph.
the treatment uses special antiprotozoal drugs.If necessary the removal of the spleen (splenectomy).If in the course of disease associated fungal or bacterial infection, then antibiotics are appointed or additional antifungals.
from person to person is not transmitted leishmaniasis (except for the use of common syringes and needles), but the patient should protect from possible bites of mosquitoes to prevent the spread of infection.
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