Translated from the Greek "odontos" means tooth, the prefix "poly" indicates the plural, about a lot.Literally translated hyperdontia - a lot of teeth, more than the normal number.This term can be found in medical textbooks and on reception at the dentist.
But on a par with the term anomaly has acquired a large number of synonyms: giperodentiya, supradentiya, mnogozubnost and supernumerary teeth.The latter term is also often possible to hear in the dentist's chair, often still at the children's reception, but
All terms reflect the essence of the anomaly, namely the presence of a larger number of teeth than normal.The dairy bite 20 teeth - on each jaw 4 incisors, 2 canines and 4 molars.In permanent occlusion in the adult can be up to 32 teeth, the presence of even 28 teeth is considered the norm.Each jaw of an adult by 4 incisors, 2 canines, 4 premolars, molars 4, and not all can be seen even on the 2 molars, which are called wisdom teeth.
And if is cut at least one extra tooth in the mouth, we can safely talk about developmental abnormalities - hyperdontia.
Despite the one essence of the problem - the presence of an excess amount of teeth, there are several types hyperdontia, they can be classified on the basis of several characteristics.
The first sign is the location of the supernumerary teeth.Hyperdontia a person may be typical, as it is called atavistic.For this kind is characterized by excessive amounts of teeth in the dentition without departing from its scope.This type hyperdontia, at a stretch, but still can be called a physiological problem.
Do not forget about our ancestors, who had a powerful masticatory apparatus, with a lot of teeth, compared to the modern man.In some cases, the "heritage" of ancestors makes itself felt, and more than 32 teeth can be seen in the oral cavity.
second type - atypical hyperdontia.For this type of anomaly is characterized by the location of the teeth of the dentition, and teething is alveolar teeth wells.In some cases even the teeth can be cut out of the mouth.
addition, hyperdontia a person can be true and false.Misleading or psevdopoliodontiya, mainly linked to the preservation of milk teeth in the adult, when for some reason a baby tooth has not left the mouth at the right time and has remained firmly standing in the mouth of an adult already.
If not remove a tooth, if it does not create an occlusion disease, it can fully perform its functions and to remain permanently in permanent occlusion regardless of patient's age.There are cases when the baby teeth was recorded in patients in the age group from 55 to 60 years.
Another option is false hyperdontia teething with developmental abnormalities, such as double, spliced standing next to the teeth.Anomalies of tooth development there is a huge amount.
term "true poliodoniya" fully reflects the essence of the problem.True hyperdontia can be explained by the formation and the subsequent eruption of unnecessary rudiments of permanent teeth due to various reasons.
hyperdontia a person refers to congenital malformations dentition.According to statistics, more than a third of cases the diagnosis supernumerary teeth refers to a genetic predisposition.This can be explained the influence of teratogenic factors on the fetus in the first and second trimester of pregnancy, when there is a tab of milk and permanent teeth.
Under teratogenic factors mean violation of fetal development resulting from exposure to corrosive factors such as chemicals, including some associated with drugs, alcohol, drugs or an unfavorable environment, exposure to biological agents - viruses and various other things.As a result of these factors form different defects and developmental abnormalities.
At present there is no clear and complete explanation for the formation of an excessive amount of teeth, the approach to this issue should be an extensive and versatile.Although hyperdontia should be considered as a result of increased production zuboobrazovatelnyh plates to stages of the dentition.And the impact on the formation of these plates can be different, ranging from genetic susceptibility and ending with the pathology of the endocrine system of the mother and abnormal pregnancy.
Most often possible to diagnose atypical hyperdontia in which excess, supernumerary teeth are located outside of the dentition.This arrangement significantly and negatively affect the aesthetic aspect of a smile, but it's not the worst consequences.
presence of supernumerary teeth pathological influence on the formation of an occlusion.The fact that the eruption of the teeth causes unnecessary move adjacent teeth.In rare cases, the eruption of supernumerary teeth does not cause any disturbances in occlusion.
most commonly supernumerary this front group of teeth - incisors and canines.The emergence of excessive tooth makes complete turn teeth around its axis, or erupt from the sky or on it.As a result, it suffers not only the aesthetics but also biting and chewing food.Variants of pathology due to supernumerary teeth huge amount.
Another pathology that can cause hyperdontia is complete retention of teeth.Often extra teeth are on the path of complete tooth eruption and not allow them to be cut, resulting in complete teeth can take an anomalous situation in the body of the jaw and not be cut at all.The entire film is that the abnormal situation of complete tooth in the body may induce pathology jaw adjacent teeth until loss.
hyperdontia treatment in humans, as well as most of the anomalies of the maxillofacial region, mainly surgical.But the treatment does not end with the elimination of disease, it is necessary to fix also the consequences that carries itself the presence of this pathology.This is an orthodontic treatment.
all supernumerary teeth must be removed, especially if the supernumerary tooth is underdeveloped, which in most cases happens.In rare cases, supernumerary teeth are not removed and is left in the mouth.The main indications for the preservation of supernumerary tooth is the underdevelopment of the complete tooth, which is still in the body of the jaw and can not be cut.
The most common supernumerary tooth eruption occurs in childhood, and in deciding whether to delete unnecessary teeth need to consider the location of the tooth, the child's age and the degree of formation of the roots of teeth.If complete and cut a supernumerary tooth, the latter must be removed without delay, because the presence of excess tooth trigger abnormal bite.
After elimination of the root causes of the anomaly, namely, supernumerary teeth, depending on the generated start to bite pathology orthodontic treatment.His techniques and methods are strictly individual.
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