Radiation sickness : the extent and symptoms

Radiation sickness : the extent and symptoms
For a simple layman, the term "radiation sickness" may seem far away, like a sci-fi novel or article about Hiroshima and Chernobyl.However, in reality suffer from radiation sickness, can non-compliance with safety in the radiation-related industrial production, or even rough handling x-ray machine.

Radiation sickness arises from the effects of radiation on living organisms.Its manifestations depend on the total dose received radiation exposure, measured in units of gray - Gy.

received doses of radiation up to 1 Gy attributed to radiation injury than 1 Gy - for radiation sickness.Doses exceeding 10 Gy are considered to be fatal.

High doses of ionizing radiation damage organs and tissues at the cellular level, disrupt hematopoiesis system, cause severe burns to the skin and mucous membranes, radiation, and the disruption of the internal organs, cell mutation and death of the victim.Radiation to enter the body through the skin can both or with food, water and air, contaminated active radioisotopes.

Radiation sickness, depending on the intensity and duration of exposure is divided into acute and chronic.

Acute radiation sickness: degree

Acute radiation sickness occurs during irradiation at a dose of 1 Gy in a short period of time.It is relatively rare, but also the most dangerous form of radiation sickness.The irradiation dose of more than 4.5 Gy mortality in humans reaches 50%.

Depending on the radiation dose acute radiation sickness is divided into several clinical forms:

  • bone marrow (1-10 Gy);
  • intestinal (10-20 Gy);
  • toksemicheskaya (vascular) (20-80 Gy);
  • cerebral (80-120 Gy);
  • death under the beam (120 Gy).

Symptoms and consequences of acute radiation sickness

lethal dose of radiation lead to death within a period of a few hours up to two weeks.The first symptoms are nausea and vomiting, drowsiness, weakness, lethargy, convulsions and tremors.

subsequently developed acute gastrointestinal disease, leading to diarrhea and dehydration, the mass of circulating blood decreases rapidly decreases venous and arterial blood pressure, inhibits vital functions fails and the central nervous system.

basic medical care in these cases is aimed at decontamination of clothing of the victim, withdrawal symptoms and relief of patient suffering.

Chronic radiation sickness: degree

chronic radiation sickness is the result of the body's exposure is relatively small, but still greater than normal doses of radiation.The disease affects various organs and systems of the body, have a long and undulating course.In chronic radiation sickness can be combined critical organ damage and reduction reactions of the organism.

development of chronic radiation sickness includes three periods:

  • during the formation of the pathological process;
  • recovery period;
  • period of consequences and outcomes of radiation sickness.

First period lasts from 1 to 3 years, during this time formed characteristic symptoms of radiation sickness.They are divided into 4 degrees of severity - from mild first to fourth dire.

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degrees of radiation sickness

diagnosis of radiation sickness first , very mild symptoms may be complicated character, suitable for many diseases.In patients experiencing fatigue, memory impairment, decreased performance.

man fell under the radiation dose of 0.5-1 Gy, feels emanating from him warm.

Patients with 1st degree radiation sickness suffer from headaches, insomnia, bad state of health in the morning, distinguished irritability and changes in appetite.Objective symptoms are considered to be excessive sweating and nasal mucous membrane disorder, as well as deterioration of the gastrointestinal tract, manifested in constipation.

Mild radiation sickness rarely leads to disruption of the internal organs, and has no effect on the blood.Upon termination of exposure to radiation, the recovery may occur within 1-2 months.

Radiation sickness second , moderate severity different symptoms more pronounced character.They also added to change the functions of internal organs, bleeding, sores and tissue degradation, inhibited hematopoietic system.

disease can occur over the years, adding to infections and fatigue.Most patients do not recover completely, even being provided inpatient hospital conditions.

third degree radiation sickness hematopoiesis accompanied by a deterioration of work systems, bleeding and bleeding, organic lesions of the central nervous system and internal organs.Numerous complications are related to infectious diseases.Typically, the disease progresses and ends with death.

fourth severity of radiation sickness almost never occurs and is considered to be terminal.

Modern diagnostics allows to detect and stop the disease at a certain stage of development, not allowing her to progress.The recovery period occurs within 1-3 years after the cessation of exposure.

This period allows us to estimate the degree of damage and the prospects of recovery.Chronic radiation sickness can be completed as a complete recovery and restoration of some defects.It is also possible, and the deterioration of the patient's condition.

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