Signs of pneumonia : how to diagnose disease

Signs of pneumonia : how to diagnose disease
Acute pneumonia or exacerbation of chronic pneumonia, usually accompanied by severe clinical manifestations, which are held on average 10 to 20 days in patients with uncomplicated disease.

Common symptoms of pneumonia

Common symptoms of pneumonia is usually caused by intoxication caused by bacterial and / or viral, fungal less, microflora, as well as a temporary exhaustion of the body.

General weakness

It can occur from the first days of the disease, and even a few days before him, wearing pronounced throughout the disease and persist for up to 1-2 months after recovery (during the period of recovery of the body).

may be accompanied by dizziness, decreased appetite, apathy, drowsiness, desire for inactivity.

Temperature reaction

may be varying degrees of severity, and largely due to the views of the infectious agent.

Bacterial pneumonia often occur with a significant rise in temperature (up to 38-40 degrees), especially in the first week of the disease.

Viral pneumonia can occur with small

and periodic fever (low-grade fever 37-37,5 degrees).Typically, the temperature rises in the first week of illness, and then, in descending order of the inflammatory process, especially when intensive care is declining for 3-7 days.

increase in temperature is accompanied by chills and sweating, it is sometimes possible depression of consciousness, the emergence delirium, confusion with increased motor activity and even hallucinations.

In some cases, the temperature increase is observed only in the evening and night hours.

Vegetative reaction

They are most often caused by intoxication and uncoordinated work of various divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

This can manifest violation of thermoregulation, hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), especially at high temperatures, a slight tremor of the extremities (in children, even in the form of seizures), dizziness, headache, loss of appetite, increased thirst.

Intoxication

syndrome is almost always present, but the degree of severity of extremely variable - from general weakness and malaise, such as viral pneumonia, to depression of consciousness, nausea, vomiting (especially often observed in young children), diarrhea, cramps, painmuscle and joint pains, lack of appetite, swelling and pallor of the skin, etc.

immunity Reduced

can manifest accession of secondary infection and is associated with the weakening of the body's defenses, such as influenza (or other viral) pneumonia is most often joined by a bacterial infection.

And sometimes the irrational and haphazard treatment of secondary bacterial pneumonia joins a fungal infection, especially after antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive treatment.

Common symptoms are nonspecific, meaning they can be observed in various infectious diseases, including other sites (eg, intestinal infections, wound infections, etc.).

These reactions are due to the mobilization of resources of the body to fight infection in the respiratory tract and a corresponding decrease in vital resources in other body systems.

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Specific symptoms of pneumonia

specific symptoms typical of pneumonia associated with involvement in the inflammatory process of different light structures (alveoli, bronchi, pleura).

Cough varying severity

usually associated with the presence in sputum bronchial irritant their walls and causing the cough reflex.

Depending on the amount and viscosity of phlegm cough is dry, hacking and easily outgoing sputum, which may be of a slimy character, and the accession of microbial infections - be purulent, yellowish-green in color and with an unpleasant odor.

With a strong cough and inflammation, deeply affecting the walls of the bronchi and alveoli of the lungs (for example, lobar pneumonia) in the sputum may contain streaks of blood.

During pneumonia cough can occur from the first day until complete recovery, but sometimes can be expressed poorly and is not to be the leading symptom of pneumonia in the hospital.

Chest pain

This symptom is most often associated with involvement in the inflammatory process surrounding lung tissue visceral pleura (membrane that literally fused to the surface of the pulmonary alveoli and gouged forms interlobar slits).

Less pain associated with pleurisy - fluid accumulation in the thoracic cavity between the pleura covering the lungs and pleura that covers the inner surface of the chest - ribs, muscles, nerves, heart and major bronchi (the right and left lung), the trachea and otherstructure

Dyspnea is often observed at the peak of the disease and is associated with the shutdown of the respiratory surface of the lung due to the accumulation in the alveoli and smallest bronchi mucus.shortness of breath gradually disappears as the airways and release adequate tissue oxygenation.

Signs of pneumonia and the diagnosis

All these signs of pneumonia characterized by a typical course of the disease, but in recent years, as well as in elderly patients with pneumonia can wear a sluggish current, atypical, so sometimes it can be a random finding on radiography Lung or fluorographyon another occasion, such as during the medical examination.

diagnosis "pneumonia" just put radiologist and physician analyzing the complaints of the patient data and additional research methods (auscultation - listening breathing with the help of stethoscope, data of laboratory investigations and radiological diagnostic methods).

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