Malaria

Severe illness, which is the main carrier mosquito genus Anopheles.

Malaria - acute protozoan infection vectors which are kind of Anopheles mosquitoes.In addition to the bite of an infected mosquito, the infection can be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy, as well as the transfusion of infected blood or use of contaminated needles and syringes.

Malaria (aka swamp fever) - one of the oldest of human infectious diseases.The first mention of it have been found in Chinese chronicles about 2700 BCIn the XVII century Europe discovered the bark of the cinchona tree, where malaria has been treated Indians - descendants of the Incas.And at the end of the XIX century French was isolated from her active ingredient - quinine.At the beginning of the XX century doctors treated even syphilis, skillfully manipulating malarial attacks prohibitively high temperature by means of quinine.At high temperatures, syphilis passed in the latent stage, and the disease slowed down.However, not all patients experie

nced similar treatment.For description of the malaria parasite life cycle of the Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded in 1902.

reason malaria

causative agent of the disease is the simplest kind of microorganism Plasmodium.Different types of malaria parasites differ from each other in terms of duration of individual stages of the life cycle.Therefore, depending on which of them was the cause of the disease is isolated vivax (Plasmodium vivax), four-day malaria (P. malariae), the most common of all tropical malaria (P. falciparum) and oval -malyariyu (P. ovale).And it was recently discovered another one, the fifth kind - P. knowlesi.

Malaria is widespread in Asia, Africa and South America.Not long ago, some cases of malaria in the Moscow region were exclusively to imported.However, doctors regret in recent years, Central Russia acquires its own pockets of malaria, including in the Moscow region.This is due to a violation of the drying marshes regime and the emergence of favorable conditions for mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, which are the intermediate host for Plasmodium falciparum.

Symptoms of malaria

characteristic feature of malaria are repeated at precisely defined intervals of fever and chills, severe headache and joint pain, vomiting and convulsions.Due to the destruction of red blood cells observed anemia (anemia), and hemoglobinuria (hemoglobin in the urine excretion, which gives it a reddish hue).Increased liver.Also, increases in the size of the spleen (splenomegaly), which is fraught with its rupture.May develop cerebral ischemia.

malaria diagnosis

causative agent is determined by the results of cytology patient's blood, as well as through a variety of rapid malaria diagnostic methods.In its manifestation of the disease is similar to yellow fever and dengue, visceral leishmaniasis, as well as leptospirosis and brucellosis.

Treatment of malaria

If untreated high risk of developing acute renal and acute respiratory failure, coma and splenic rupture.In this case, some deaths from malaria species (e.g., tropical) reaches 40%.

To date, developed effective antiprotozoal drugs designed to kill is Plasmodium falciparum, malaria so successfully and effectively treated.However, some types of plasmodium have partial resistance to drugs, so you need to further study the blood after treatment is completed.Microscopy of blood is carried out every 1-2 weeks for 1.5 months after recovery.

if damaged spleen there is a need for surgical treatment.

Prevention

Malaria Acquired immunity is unstable and very little protection against re-infection.Therefore, doctors recommend when visiting malarial areas to take drugs to prevent malaria.Given that the effect of such funds is not immediately, they should start taking 1-2 weeks prior to arrival in a potentially dangerous area, and for a further 1-4 weeks after leaving it.

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