Compensation of children

to create optimal conditions for blindness compensation should take into account the child's age and the demands that are presented to him at this stage of development.

There are various forms of compensation blindness:

  • organic (internal system) - with the possibility of compensation are used most of the visual sensory system;
  • inter-system - a kind of compensation, based on the mobilization of the body's possibilities outside of the visual sensory system (such compensation includes the establishment of new relations between the analyzers using detours).

to process compensation and its extent in time has its own features.They depend on:

  • time of occurrence of the defect;
  • degree of organization of the newly formed connections between processes;
  • age of the child;
  • extent of damage of visual functions;
  • physical and mental characteristics;
  • individual psychological characteristics;
  • social environment and upbringing environment;
  • level of adult education and its ability to take into account the p
    eculiarities of the child's development.

Stages compensatory process blind children

transition to each stage of the compensatory process depends on what the main activity at this stage of child development, as formed cognitive processes and psychological characteristics, the degree of the negative impact of the visual function in the performance of this type ofactivities and how the defect underlies the formation of secondary violations of children's psyche.

For example, such a transition in infants and pre-school children is associated with the formation of the newly established psychological structures.

In the first stage of development is, above all, integrated motor and kinesthetic perception - touch, hearing, education and cross-functional global vnutrifunktsionalnyh relations, which are based on the processes of communication and objective activity.

At the second stage - a speech that acts as a compensatory process, which reduces the effect of underdevelopment fine motor skills of fingers, impaired due to lack of visual control for a while.

On the basis of speech, the child learns to tell an adult, and therefore to show them.Children who understand the content of another's speech, are able to learn from his example to carry out activities and hands at the beginning of the process used kinesthetic control.

third stage is associated with the appearance of images, representations of objects, the ability to imagine the object in its absence.Thus is formed a creative game that is one of the main instruments for the rehabilitation of visually impaired preschoolers.

For the fourth stage is characterized by the inclusion in the compensation process memory, thinking as visual-figurative and conceptual, the child begins to reflect the world with the use of sensor systems.

Research famous tiflopsihologov MIZemtsova and LISolntseva showed that by itself the psychological properties and compensation processes with visual impairments can not act as a substitution process is disturbed, it is the creation of new connections between the sensory, motor and logic systems.These complex connections allow adequate use of information from the outside world.

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