Class mycoplasma occupies an intermediate position between viruses, bacteria and protozoa.Parasitizing on cell membranes, they cause diseases of the respiratory tract in children older than 4 years of age and adults.
Infected with mycoplasma can be both from patients and from the media.The path of infection - airborne, the incubation period lasts 2-3 weeks.
prevalence of mycoplasma pneumonia (in other words, atypical) account for about 15-20% of all cases of community-acquired pneumonia.Sometimes they can lead to a whole epidemic, especially among school-age children and in closed populations, such as in military units.
Symptoms of mycoplasma infection are different.Typically, the disease is mild and accompanied by a cough, runny nose, sore throat, persistent for several weeks.
With the spread of infection in the lower respiratory tract there are headaches, intoxication, fever, pain in the muscles.The most seriously suffer pneumonia, small children and people with weakened immune systems such as HIV patients.
Diagnosis "mycoplasma infection" is often difficult, so use multiple methods of investigation, in which the leading role played by serological tests.
As a research method used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), venous blood.
In response to infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific immune system produces immunoglobulins: IgA, IgM and IgG.
first in response to the ingress of bacteria into the blood appear immunoglobulin M. Their level increases during the first few weeks up to a maximum, and then begins to decline gradually.IgM persist in the blood for several months.
detection of immunoglobulin class M to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in blood indicative of an acute period of mycoplasma infection.
If the result is negative, it may mean not only the absence of infection, and that the time - too early and the immune response is still not developed.
addition, mycoplasma infection may be chronic, the detection of IgG and / or IgA.On the results of the analysis can influence disorders of the immune system, autoimmune diseases, HIV.
Infectious diseases caused by mycoplasma other species, ureaplasma, can lead to false positive indicator.
best results provides antibacterial therapy, in which the use of the drug by its action exceeds pathogen pneumonia.
effective against mycoplasma macrolides (drugs of choice), doxycycline, and respiratory fluoroquinolones related to alternative means.They also inhibit other intracellular bacteria (Legionella, Chlamydia).
the appointment of doxycycline should also be considered high (& gt; 25%) level of resistance to it pneumococci in Russia are often concomitant with the pathogen Mycoplasma pneumonia.
Doxycycline should not be administered to children under 10 years, pregnant women and nursing mothers.Fluoroquinolones are not used until the completion of the growth period (except in patients with cystic fibrosis) and in women during pregnancy and lactation.
When choosing macrolide preference is given antibiotics with improved pharmacokinetic properties (azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and spiramycin).Furthermore, macrolides are also active against gram-positive flora and maximally sensitive to azithromycin also Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus influenzae.
immunity to mycoplasma unstable, possibly re-infection.
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