Symptoms of pneumonia in adults

Symptoms of pneumonia in adults
Pneumonia - an acute inflammatory disease of the lungs of different nature, occurring mainly affecting the airways of the lungs (alveoli and alveolar ducts).The symptoms of pneumonia in adults typically bright, and they can not be noticed.

incidence of acute pneumonia in adults is very high - average figures are 12-14 cases per 1 thousand people..During influenza epidemics, this figure rises to 1.8-2 times.

main causes and mechanism of pneumonia in adults

By the nature of the

inflammatory process in the lungs isolated 2 main types of pneumonia.

  • Primary occur in individuals who have not had before respiratory diseases.
  • Secondary occur against the background of existing respiratory and other systems of the body (this may be a postoperative pneumonia, aspiration, and post-traumatic stress, pneumonia, infectious diseases and acute exacerbation of chronic lung non-specific diseases, congestive pneumonia in a long time lying and cardiac patients, metastatic pneumonia, etc..d.).

By the nature of the causative agent of pneumonia in adults divided into:

  • bacterial;
  • virus;
  • fungal;
  • rickettsial;
  • mycoplasma;
  • parasitic;
  • allergic;
  • toxic;
  • thermal.

This type of causative agent of pneumonia determines the characteristics of the flow, but as a rule, an additional bacterial infection joins in all types of pneumonia.

for the development of pneumonia is not enough only one contact person with the causative agent of the disease is very important condition of his immunity.When it decreases observed violation of the protective function of bronchial epithelium, so when breathing pathogens can settle on their walls and penetrate deep in the lung tissue.

Another factor contributing to the development of pneumonia, is to reduce the cough reflex, which often occurs in conditions such as drunkenness, chronic smoker's bronchitis, when released into the bronchi of foreign matter, vomit, as well as in a number of neurological diseases (after stroke, whenwidespread osteochondrosis, etc.).

Under the influence of these factors in the lung tissue growing congestion in the areas of inflammation and mucus begins to accumulate inflammatory exudate containing white blood cells, red blood cells, the epithelium of the alveoli and bronchi.

These inflammatory lesions cease to participate in breathing, have a tendency to merge and seal.Therefore, neighboring areas lungs have to take on additional respiratory function, which leads to the appearance in them a temporary emphysema.

But as a rule, focal pneumonia ends regression of inflammation (2-3 weeks) and complete recovery, and only in some cases may cause complications (development of pleurisy, an abscess, bronchiectasis, pulmonary fibrosis, and others.)

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main symptoms of pneumonia in adults

acute pneumonia often begins with the appearance of the chill, temperature rise to 38-39 deg., headaches, feelings of weakness and severe weakness, pain in the chest.

temperature is kept for a few days (sometimes up to two weeks), occasionally falling and rising again.

Shortly after raising the temperature a dry cough, which is then followed by a wet, with the discharge of muco-purulent sputum, sometimes streaked with blood, it is often accompanied by chest pain, aggravated by deep inspiration.

There is a strong shortness of breath, cyanosis of the lips, facial pallor, increased heart rate, blood pressure drop, expressed symptoms of intoxication.

During the period of the disease, patients sometimes lose much weight as the appetite they usually dropped, all the food seems tasteless.

Typically uncomplicated pneumonia is usually allowed within 3-4 weeks and ends in complete recovery.

In debilitated patients, and patients with comorbidities pneumonia often take a prolonged duration and can last up to one and a half - two months, resulting in complete recovery or development of severe complications: abscess, pleurisy, pneumosclerosis, acute respiratory failure, myocarditis, endocarditis, nephritisand other diseases.

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