Dementia : Causes, symptoms, treatment , and risk factors

Dementia : Causes, the first symptoms , treatment, and risk factors
have trouble, from which no one is immune from us, there are a lot of names, but the "dementia" sounds like something is not clear, "dementia" - ugly, "insanity" - deadly.It seems as if the words themselves interfere talk about this issue.And talk about it should be, simply necessary, as in Russia, about 2 million patients, and several million more caregivers of relatives.

Many families faced with forgetfulness, slovenliness, loss of interest in the life of their loved one, the old blamed it on the natural changes in the body, its aging, and go to the doctor only when the disorder in the behavior of the patient (wandering, aggression,demonstrative sexuality, etc.) make the lives of others miserable.

Meanwhile timely initiated therapy allows for years to delay the onset of unpleasant consequences.

What is dementia

Dementia - a serious disorder in the intellect and behavior, leading to the loss of their basic skills in all spheres of life.

dementia (dementia) usually occurs in older people: among p

eople over 65 years suffer from it at least 5% of people.The acquisition of new knowledge and skills have significantly hampered, while lost and previously learned.Although senile dementia by definition serious cognitive disorder, experts distinguish between dementia severity status.The criterion for distinguishing between acts degree of dependence of the patient on the care of others.

mild dementia - a condition in which cognitive impairment reach levels that lead to the degradation of professional patient skills to reduce its social activity (reduction of time everyday to communicate with family, colleagues, friends), to a weakening of its interest in the outside world (the rejection of the usual hobbies and forms of entertainment).In mild dementia patient retains all the skills of self-service, it continues to operate normally navigate within your own home.

moderate dementia When a person can not long remain one since losing the skills to use by the majority of modern devices (telephone, remote control TV, cooker), can have difficulty with opening locks.That is the stage in life called senile marasmus.The patient is always in need of tips from others, however, it retains the skills of personal hygiene and self-service.Senility becomes a heavy burden for the relatives and friends of the patient.

Severe dementia - a dementia, characterized by complete and constant dependence on outside help, even in the most simple actions (dressing, eating, hygiene).

first symptoms

dementia What can be considered a sufficient basis for treatment to the doctor about the likely disturbances?

memory.Surrounding note that the man was worse than memorize information about current events and it starts to affect everyday life.(Information on significant events of the past can be preserved even at a fairly advanced stage of dementia.)

orientation.The man began to focus less time.(Ability to correctly call the place usually preserved longer. Problems can only occur when the orientation in unfamiliar terrain.)

Thinking.There are minor difficulties when trying to solve a simple problem in everyday practice.Solver (selecting the necessary options) is slower than before.Perhaps the rapid fatigue in dealing with mental problems.

Community.Gradually it lost independence in performing the usual duties.They begin to weigh on some social functions.(However, these changes are visible only to people you know who are in constant contact with the patient. On the surface communication, for example with their neighbors on the porch, they can be non-obvious).

behavior.Gradually lose interest in the hobbies that occupy a person first, especially if they exercise requires effort.They begin to appear, domestic difficulties, may show signs of negligence, carelessness.There is a rejection of the complex activities of daily living.Man cares for him myself, but need to be reminded.

Causes Dementia

main reason - the neuronal death associated with the formation of toxic deposits in the brain, or lack of nutrition blood vessels.Less deterioration of the brain may be caused by another independent disease, which complicates their course of functioning of the nervous system (secondary dementia).By primary dementia Approximately 90% of all cases of dementia and to the secondary - 10%.

diseases and other disorders that lead to dementia:

  • Diseases of the nervous system, in which the dying brain cells (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea).
  • Vascular diseases of the brain (stroke, multiple infarction, chronic cerebral ischemia).
  • Metabolic disorders (alcoholism, hypoxemia, disruption of the liver and kidneys, hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, B1 deficiency, B12, folic acid).
  • Intoxication metal salts (aluminum, zinc, copper), drugs (anticholinergics, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, neuroleptics).
  • neuroinfections (HIV disease Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease, meningoencephalitis, paralysis, multiple sclerosis).
  • Traumatic brain injury.
  • brain tumors.


dementia often hear about the futility of treating dementia, because age-related changes in the body does not fix any medicines.Such an idea is fundamentally wrong.

Firstly, not all kinds of irreversible dementia.Some retreat after the elimination of their causes.Secondly, even in cases where dementia is caused by an incurable disease, modern medicine has antidementnymi drugs, hindering the pace of development of adverse effects.In this sense, the treatment of dementia is not only possible but also necessary.It helps the patient longer maintain contact with others and to take care of himself and his family extend a minute of live communication with your loved one, thus removing some of the load of care.

Risk Factors and Prevention

Age.The higher it is, the higher the risk of the disease.For ten years, taking place between 70 and 80 years, the risk increases 10 times (in 80 years of dementia affects one in five).

Paul.Uzhenschin more common Alzheimer's disease.It is believed that this is due to the lack of estrogen in the fairer sex after menopause.But vascular dementia is more common in men.They are more likely to suffer from heart problems and from high blood pressure.

genotype.Alzheimer's disease can be inherited in the form of genes, has to its development.However, if the parents Alzheimer's disease manifested itself after 65 years, the risk of the descendants of the same disease increases only slightly compared with families in which dementia was observed.

Recommendations for the prevention of dementia in general coincide with the advice of your doctor about a healthy lifestyle.As effective measures are called:

  • a healthy, balanced diet, preventing high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases;
  • getting rid of bad habits (particularly smoking and alcohol abuse);
  • stable physical activity - exercise in the fresh air, walking;
  • education and constant mental activity (introduction to new knowledge, intellectual games), education does not prevent the death of neurons, but allows you to more effectively compensate for their loss;
  • regular communication with a wide circle of acquaintances (scientists say that a person who is not family started in middle age, twice the risk of developing dementia than its peers living with a partner).

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