Coronary heart disease : causes, symptoms , and risk factors

Coronary heart disease : causes, symptoms , and risk factors
main symptoms, types and risk factors for coronary heart disease.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) - a disease caused by a mismatch between the demand of the heart muscle for oxygen and its delivery to the bloodstream.

Coronary heart disease - one of the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system in all developed countries, and one of the most frequent causes of death.

mainly ischemic heart disease occurs in people older than 40 years, and men are affected more often than women.

Thus, the prevalence of coronary heart disease among men aged 50 to 69 years is 18-25%, and among women in the same age group - 13-15%.

Coronary Heart Disease Causes Heart

supplied with blood the coronary arteries, which deliver oxygen to the heart muscle.The cause of coronary heart disease is atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.

Atherosclerotic plaque narrows the lumen of the coronary arteries, reducing blood flow to the myocardium, leading to myocardial ischemia.

believed that coronary artery must be narrowed

by at least 70% to developed severe clinical picture of coronary heart disease.

should be noted that a mismatch between myocardial oxygen demand and delivery arising in other diseases, such as inflammatory lesions, or congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, is not treated as coronary heart disease.

Coronary Artery Disease: Risk Factors

The main risk factors for coronary heart disease include:

  • age over 40 years for men and over 55 for women
  • smoking
  • sedentary
  • hypertension
  • obesity
  • diabetes
  • high blood lipids
  • constant emotional overload

examination by a doctor is recommended particularly when a combination of several of these factors, even if the person has no characteristic of coronary heart disease complaints.

Types of coronary heart disease

main clinical forms of ischemic heart disease are sudden cardiac death, angina, silent myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, myocardial infarction, circulatory failure, arrhythmias and conduction.

According to the Framingham study, about 40% of men and 56% of women coronary heart disease debuts stable angina.

angina attack often occurs by physical or emotional stress, which contributes to an increase in myocardial oxygen demand and oxygen supply to the heart muscle can not increase because of the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries.

There transient myocardial ischemia that is clinically usually manifests pain in the chest radiating to the left arm, shoulder or jaw.After the cessation of myocardial load requirements decrease, the heart muscle is no longer lacking in oxygen and the pain goes away.

Sometimes transient myocardial ischemia is not accompanied by pain, although there are signs of insufficient blood supply to the myocardium during instrumental examination (for example, electrocardiography).This form of coronary heart disease is called silent myocardial ischemia.

Quite often the first manifestation of coronary heart disease may be a heart attack - necrosis (necrosis) of the heart muscle as a result of acute arose and pronounced imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and delivery.

Myocardial infarction is one of the most common causes of death and disability in the population, both in our country and abroad.In recent years there has been an increased incidence of myocardial infarction, particularly among the young and middle-aged persons.

myocardial necrosis place later replaced by connective tissue with scar formation.The "old" heart attack, or myocardial infarction, - another clinical form of ischemic heart disease.

Postinfarction cardio can lead to congestive heart failure or cause a variety of cardiac arrhythmias, and at the same time can only be detected during examination in the absence of complaints of the patient.

to sudden cardiac death include cases of sudden cessation of cardiac activity, often because of severe cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation or asystole), with death occurring within one hour of the first symptoms of the disease and the absence of signs that allow to put a different diagnosis (injury, and other diseases, violent deaths).

Coronary heart disease in 80-90% of cases the cause of sudden cardiac death.

big changes in the understanding of the problem of coronary heart disease, new ischemic syndromes appeared in addition to the classical forms of coronary heart disease, such as "sleeping," "stunned myocardium" Syndrome X (microvascular angina) have occurred in recent years.

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