Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - a disease which is characterized by partially irreversible reduction in the airway.What are the main risk factors for this disease?
Smoking Smoking is the cause of 80-90% of cases of COPD.The tobacco smoke is detected more than 1.9 thousand. Components that have toxic and carcinogenic effects.Smokers have the highest mortality rates, they will develop symptoms of the disease.It is believed that the demographics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reflects the prevalence of smoking.
Index smoker (IR) greater than 120 indicates an increased risk of COPD.IR is calculated as the number of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of months in the year during which the person smokes.
addition to active smoking in the collection of medical history should pay attention to episodes of passive smoking.This applies to all age groups, including in utero exposure to tobacco smoke (smoke or the pregnan
incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is higher in areas with high air pollution than environmentally friendly.This is due to the fact that a person inhales air contaminated with aggressive substances of different nature, which irritate and damage the mucous membranes of the respiratory system, triggering the development of chronic inflammation.Smog can cause severe COPD exacerbation.
cadmium and silicon are the most harmful among the professional nature of the risk factors.Thus, the increased risk of developing COPD is observed in miners (mining COPD highest risk);construction workers associated with cement;Metal industry workers (hot processing of metals);railroad, as well as workers engaged in processing of grain, cotton, and paper production.It should be emphasized that smoking increases the effects of occupational hazards.
Repeated acute respiratory viral infections (ARI) also contribute to the disruption of the cleaning and protective function of bronchi.However, most of Chest Physicians believes that an infectious factor joins later, when under the influence of the above factors have formed the conditions for infection of the bronchial tree.
assumed that COPD often develops in individuals with low weight at birth, blood group A (II) and the absence of IgA.
COPD ranks fourth among all causes of death in the age group older than 45 years and is the only disease where mortality continues to increase.
So it's worth thinking about how to quit smoking.
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