the first time scientists were able to successfully clone a human embryo and extracted from it stem cells, which are the basic building material of an organism.Stem cells have the primary hope to find the treatment of diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease, paralysis caused by spinal cord injury.
Clones - a genetically identical individuals.Thus, the twins - is also clones.
Usually, when there is a fusion of sperm and egg, fertilized cell begins to divide by 2, 4, 8, 16, etc.parts.Gradually, the cells begin to acquire a specific function, to form organs and systems.At the end of the cell grows child.
But sometimes after the first division two cells apart.Each of them continues to divide, grow resulting in two individuals with exactly the same set of genes.It's identical twins, they can be cal
Today, speaking about cloning, we are referring to the process of nuclear transfer, in which the DNA unfertilized egg is removed and replaced with the DNA of adult cells oganizma (eg, skin cells).As a result, the cell over which manipulate enriched with new genetic material begins to divide.And the result is a twin, are genetically completely identical to human skin cells that have in the beginning.
scientists managed to clone a human embryo.This type of cloning has been called therapeutic or scientific because it was made exclusively for research purposes.
Therapeutic cloning is not so new.Scientists have used this technology for the treatment of various diseases in mice.Also, the potential benefits of human stem cells has been studied in the embryonic remnant material obtained in clinics for patients with infertility.
Until now, the cloning of human embryos to obtain stem cells that are genetically identical to the patient's cells, thought to be impossible.But not so long ago, scientists conducted the following experiment.In 16 voluntary donors was taken 242 eggs and a few cells from the ovary.The researchers then moved the core of ovarian cells in the egg.With reagents process of cell division was launched.Scientists were able to get 30 blastocysts (embryos at an early stage of development), containing about 100 cells that are an exact genetic copies of donor cells.Of these scientists collected single colony of stem cells capable of forming any tissue of the body.A genetic copy being donor cells, these cells are not rejected by the patient's immune system.
Scientists believe this is a breakthrough in transplantation medicine.
In theory, taking the patient's cell, you can create any desired cell type, for example, pancreatic islet cells (for diabetics by transferring the nucleus of pancreatic islet cells in any patient of any egg donor).In fact, in order to make practical therapeutic cloning usual treatment is simply not enough eggs.Even offering women money, scientists still do not receive the required number of eggs, because the process of abstraction is too unpleasant.According to the degree of pain to the donor, he is close to a bone marrow transplant.And while the day hundreds of egg cells are collected from cattle, nothing like that can not be expected from a man.
Another problem - it's money.To avoid organ rejection, each patient would have to grow an individual cell line, and the cost would be too great.It will be very difficult to find such a modification technology, which does not cost hundreds of thousands of dollars.And why, when there is such a large number of embryonic remnants of in vitro fertilization.However, the prohibition of their use is still valid.
For some people, technology is not the source of stem cells used in the treatment of diseases, and the last hope of having a child, "return" lost a spouse or other loved one.
First of all, according to Griffin, only 1-2% of cloned animals are able to give birth to healthy offspring.Moreover, many cloned animals dying in the early or late pregnancy.Of course, there are clones and healthy animals that are considered normal.But, according to scientists, tests for normality of these animals are not accurate enough.From security considerations alone no one should attempt to clone a baby.Even identical twins - are two different people.These fingerprints are different, even though 100% but for the same set of genes.Thus, your clone would not your copy, and unique person.
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