Food security and agricultural biodiversity Russian

In recent years, the global economy is observed all over the deepening food crisis, which according to experts is not only connected with the processes of climate change, but with the restriction of agricultural biodiversity and, as a consequence, reduction of food diversity and the loss of quality.

As stated in his report, FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf: "The international community is very concerned about the observed trends, since there is deterioration in the quality of food and narrowing the diversity of the diet.The loss of biodiversity will have serious implications for the ability of humankind to feed itself in the near future.Indeed, by 2050, demographers project that the world population will reach nine billion people. "October 29, 2010, at the UN Conference devoted to the problem of protecting the Earth's biodiversity (Nagoya, Japan), the International Plan of Action was adopted by the Wildlife Conservation for the period up to 2020.

After the implementation of the plan, under the prote

ction of environmental organizations will have to be for 17% of the land of the earth and 10% of the world ocean with unique natural ecosystems.In the above-mentioned conference, did not ignore the problem of reduction of agricultural biodiversity, noting that the pace of contraction exceed by hundreds of times, the rate of extinction of species of wildlife.Particularly it emphasized that in the world there are hundreds of thousands of species of wild "relatives" of agricultural plants and animals, containing genetic complexes that scientists have yet to explore and decipher.

from high tribunes voiced criticisms of various environmental movements for paying insufficient attention to the protection of wildlife, as well as made a claim to the media, who are paying close attention to the situation with representatives of wildlife and very little problem of the conservation of biological diversity of crops.And this despite the fact that hundreds of thousands of varieties of domesticated plants and animals, created by the peoples of different countries for thousands of years, are the most important resource for human life and are the basis of food sovereignty of any country or guarantee its food security.


Scientists estimate that only for the period from 1900 to 2000lost 84% of the world's diversity of plants that were economically important genetic characteristics that would allow breeders to bring new varieties that can withstand such challenges modern conditions such as drought, soil salinity, etc. .. It has been established that from 1900 to the present time, it wasIt lost 75% of the food diversity of Europe and 93% American.According to international organizations working in the sector of agricultural and food markets, such as the FAO, Slow Food, IFOAM et al., For today of 250 000 known to science of higher plants, currently only 30 species account for 95% of our diet.Over the past XX century in the world disappeared 30 thousand vegetable varieties.Only America has lost 97% of the vegetable variety.Of the 7,000 varieties of apples, to date, it has only 900. Of the 2,600 varieties of pears - today there are only 330 species.

Fifty years ago, in India and China, 30 thousand cultivated varieties of rice, and today 75% of the most important South-East Asian culture is represented by just a few hundred varieties.According to estimates of experts, every 6 hours in the world continues to fade one of the varieties of plants cultivated by man.In developed countries, while industrialized agricultural production, using a small number of varieties, which is fraught with serious consequences, in terms of the environment changes.Of particular concern are the emerging trend in agricultural production to the use of monocultures, which, under certain conditions (for example, the number of outbreaks of pests and Phytophthora) can totally disappear, leading to disastrous consequences.This fact has already taken place in the recent past of mankind: the catastrophic spread of Phytophthora, destroyed in the forties of the XIX century.the potato crop in Ireland, which has caused widespread famine and there are hundreds of thousands of deaths.

According to forecasts FAO experts only as a result of climate change in 2055 may disappear from 16% to 22% of wild relatives of varieties of nuts, potatoes and beans.In a report submitted to the UN said that over the past 12 years there has been an understanding of the need for and the protection of biodiversity and the importance of agriculture.The world's growing number of gene pool of banks, which are now there in 1750, which contains more than 7.4 million copies of the collection of varieties and their wild relatives.In countries that are centers of biological diversity and the origin of many crops, there is an active work on the preservation of the rich genetic material for future generations.

We note with regret that in agribusiness in developing countries actively promoted or encouraged the process of replacing traditional local varieties of crops to imported "overseas".In the horticulture and fruit-growing process of "replacement" touched, especially species with the most consumed and well transportable fruits, such as:. Peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers, pear, apple, plum, cherry, cherry, etc. Also there is the erosion of local varieties notonly because of the introduction of new, but also because of increased competition among local varieties.The varieties most sought after on the market, replacing the others, which are stored and maintained in the genetic purity only by breeders.

In an effort to increase the manufacturer's profit goes replacement of less "profitable" (despite their higher taste and useful qualities, adaptive properties, etc.) on marketable technology or industrial grade.In addition, there is not only the genetic erosion of local cultivars of fruit crops, but also simultaneously the rapid disappearance of wild relatives of the species growing in the centers of origin.Saving wild plants plants from extinction is also one of the main objectives of the international community.

Preserving diversity of wild species of cultivated plants - it is important for us and for future generations, also because some of them may contain as yet unknown genetic characteristics is not defined by science and their potential can be a source of useful properties economically.The deepest understanding of the problem and the importance of conserving the genetic diversity of plant varieties by our predecessors - the scientists of the early twentieth century, it is very important today because of the planet's biodiversity is facing a real threat associated with the industrialization of agriculture, the dominance of monocultures, the advent of genetically modified crops, climate change, andwith the destruction of centers of origin and the natural habitat of plants.


disappearance of many species of vertebrates nowadays a thousand times higher than the natural extinction of animals in the evolutionary past.For example, by studying mammals, evolutionary biologists have determined that over the past 500 years have died, at least 80 species of 5570. At the same time in the entire previous history of mammals average extinction rate was less than two per cent of species in a million years, that does not go tocomparison with the modern pace.According to experts, if the species of animals that are now officially recognized as being on the verge of extinction, really disappear from the face of the Earth, this disaster could happen probably within the next 3 - 22 centuries.Currently died only 1-2% of the total number of all types, evolutionists believe that it is too late to save this systematic group in which the threat of extinction has not yet passed the critical line.

cause of the rapid extinction of species, researchers see the dangers of climate change and human impact on the environment, the exclusion of which as a factor of influence, will require serious effort and cost.A similar situation is associated with a high rate of extinction is not only wild relatives of domesticated species and animal species, and it is no less catastrophic.Since the beginning of the domestication of the first animals were obtained more than 7,000 species (representing mammals and birds) Of the 40 species of animals used for food and agriculture, only 5 of them - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens - account for mostof the world's food and agricultural products.Since the beginning of the XX century, disappeared about 696 species.A total of 1487 species are in danger of them 579 - critically ,.For example, about 33% of breeds of cattle in the world has been lost and can not be restored.

As for the Russian gene pool of native species, it is unique and weight even amid the global gene pool, and has more than 120 breeds of domestic origin only among the seven major types of farm animals (cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, goats, chickens, geese).Despite the uniqueness of the local gene pool, in the last twenty years in the Russian Federation has disappeared from 15% of breeds of sheep and 30% of pigs.At present, there are in critical condition from 20% breeds of pigs, goats, cattle and 32% sheep breeds.About 50% of Russian native breeds, the major agricultural species have either disappeared or are on the verge of extinction.If you do not take urgent, concrete measures for their conservation, it is now 25% of farmed species will be destroyed in the coming decades.Such projections of domestic animal genetic resources may be even more complicated if livestock will continue to dominate the industrial approach, which ignored the development of small and medium-sized forms of management.

Recent contributes to the conservation of agro-biodiversity and the diversity of the food market, since the formation of the species composition of a farmstead livestock and poultry at the regional level, are taken into account its geographical location, environmental conditions and historical experience of the ancestors of the breeding of local breeds.Conservation of agro-biodiversity is aimed at realization of the main objective, namely the formation of food sovereignty and security in the region, not only due to industrial agriculture, but also through the involvement in this process of peasant, farm, that may be effective in a market environment with the support of the state, whichIt is shown in many countries around the world.

According to FAO experts, international public associations and societies, States and their education for a long time should recognize the right, territory, traditions, customs and institutions of local communities and indigenous people, the choice of management system, the selection of breeds and varieties for further cultivation, selectiontechnologies for food production, support for crafts and national identity.Support for these conditions - recognition of self-determination, identity and autonomy of these people, it is extremely relevant for Russia.To save and commercial use of agro-biodiversity of domestic genetic resources requires the development and adoption of certain federal laws.

In our opinion, should understand the main thing: unique national plant varieties and animal breeds represent a emergency reserve, or "insurance policy" of humanity in the light of possible natural disasters and other man-made disasters.Careful, prudent attitude to the living heritage we inherited from our ancestors is the guarantee of our food security, preservation of traditions, culture and environment for sustainable development of agriculture in general.

Authors: Baranov A., Yu Stolpovsky

article is provided by combining ecological cluster

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