The main function of the knee as well as hip and ankle - bend, straighten and maintain body weight.The knee joint is not just a trochlear joint, it rotates and bends.It is attended by structures such as bones, ligaments, tendons and cartilage.
The main function of the knee as well as hip and ankle - bend, straighten and move your body weight.The knee joint is not just a trochlear joint, it rotates and bends.In order to perform all these actions, while holding the body, the knee joint is working in conjunction with a variety of structures such as bones, ligaments, tendons and cartilage.
The structure of the knee joint consists of four bones:
- The femur is the upper part of the joint
- One of the lower leg bone (or eggs) - tibia keeps body weight.
- patella or patella is located in front of the femur.
- Another part of the calf - fibula is not involved in weight retention.It provides a bunch of structures to
Bundles - dense stringy fibers, with their help the bone attached to each other.
knee contains four major ligaments that attach the femur to the tibia:
- Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) provides stability during rotation, as well as the stability of the front and back of the knee.
- Average collateral ligament (SCS) and the transverse ligament (PS) are located along the inner (middle) and the outer (lateral) side of the knee, providing, thus, middle and lateral stability of the knee.
Tendons - sinewy fibers similar to the bunch, but unlike them they connect muscles to bones.The knee joint has two major tendon - tendon attaches the quadriceps muscle chetrehglavuyu, located in the front of the thigh to the patella.Second patella tendon that connects the kneecap to the shinbone (technically, it's not a tendon, and ligament, as it connects the two bones) .These tendon is sometimes called the extensor mechanism, together with the quadriceps muscle they provide leg extension - straightening.
cartilage, better known as the menisci are located between the upper part of the tibia and the two joints in the lower part of the tibia, the so-called femoral condyles.
main work menisci - softening of the knee joint friction.
synovial bag - a small cavity filled with fluid which reduces the pressure.The knee joint are three important groups of synovial bags.
- suprapatellaris bag located in front of the kneecap.
- Anzerinovaya bag located on the inner side of the knee about 5 cm below the joint..
- Podnadkolennikovaya bag under the kneecap.
Inflammation - physiological body reaction to injury.The main goal in the treatment of many types of knee pain - to stop the inflammatory process that begins with the injury.This is followed by the formation of substances in the knee, causing inflammation, which leads to further degradation and drags it over the strong inflammation and so on.Such cyclical inflammatory process leading to a permanent or progressive pain.With the control of substances that lead to inflammation and subsequent tissue destruction limitation, the inflammatory process can be stopped.
protection, rest, cold, contraction, and the rise are the methods used in the home, which allow you to control the inflammatory process.
Zaschitaot possible injury.
Enough splint or cast.Thanks to this method of protection of the patella can control the symptoms of certain injuries, such as bursitis, which is popularly known as "knees Housewives", preventing re-injury suprapatellaris bags.
smaller voltage knee feels better.At rest, the tissue is easier to recover, and prevent further damage to the knee joint.
* cold to the knee.
Cold reduces swelling and can be used both in acute and chronic injuries of the knee.Doctors recommend applying cold 2-3 times a day for 20-30 minutes.You can use a bag of ice or frozen vegetables with the package.
* Contractions of the knee with pomoschyubandazha or preservative.
Shrinkage can achieve two goals: to reduce the swelling and sometimes vrovnit kneecap, thereby maintaining joint mobility.
* Raising the knee.
Lift the leg while sitting.The symptoms subside when the knee is injured, or any other part of the body is above the level of the heart.This method helps to reduce swelling, because in such a situation not accumulate fluid in the knee joint.
taking pain medications, non-prescription, including helping to get rid of unpleasant sensations.As a general rule, taking non-steroidal drugs, as well as ibuprofen.In high doses they act as anti-inflammatory.However, as with any medication, they have contraindications side effects.So, painkillers should not be used for gastric and renal diseases certain systems.
When you decide to apply to a doctor complaining of pain in the knee, you can stick to this rule - if the symptoms have not passed after weeks of treatment at home and the use of analgesics anti-inflammatory drugsyou should make an appointment with the doctor.However, you must remember that it is usually optional.If you are sure that the self does not help, immediately head to the doctor.
If you can not step on the injured leg should go to the hospital for examination, as is likely the possibility of fracture.Many fractures require the imposition of plaster or surgical intervention.Postponing the march to the hospital, can seriously complicate treatment.
Other symptoms that require the provision of immediate medical attention:
: even in today's world of high technology, doctors have more confidence in a detailed medical history and examination, rather than any analysis.
doctor will want to know the exact nature of the pain, so be prepared to answer the following questions:
doctor will want to know about you the following:
Doctor need additional information about the symptoms.
doctor asks you to undress to examine the foot-well.If possible, see a doctor wear shorts.The doctor will examine the knee and the area around the probe to see where it hurts.In addition, your doctor may carry out additional manipulations to evaluate the integrity of the ligaments, tendons and meniscus.
Based on the inspection results and medical history the doctor may prescribe X-rays of the knee joint.X-rays show fractures (broken bones) and displacement of bones in the knee, as well as arthritis, too large or too small area of the joint.Less commonly, the doctor prescribes a CT scan (3-dimensional x-ray) for accurate determination of fracture or displacement.X-rays and CT scans are excellent for the diagnosis of fractures.However, they are not suitable for assessing the condition of the soft tissues: ligaments, tendons and meniscus.
MRI.In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used larger magnets to create a 3-dimensional image of the knee joint.Unlike CT, MRI and shows bone fractures.RI suitable for evaluating the integrity of the ligaments and tendons.
removal fluid.Stifle all knee bursa filled with fluid.If symptoms indicate an infection or crystalline arthritis, such as gout, a doctor can remove the needle via fluid from the knee.Then, this liquid will test, in order to make a correct diagnosis.The crystals with crystalline arthritis can often be seen under the microscope.Recognize the infection can also be under the microscope to find in a liquid bacteria and pus.
Blood.The doctor may refer you for a blood test to detect infection or diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and diabetes.
Arthroscopy.Orthopedic surgeon may prescribe arthroscopy for chronic pain in the knee.This is a surgical procedure in which a doctor inserts into the knee joint fiber-optic telescope.For arthroscopy attached camera that transmits images in real time on the monitor.Due to this, the surgeon can see the smallest particles in the joint, or a better view of the damaged meniscus.The doctor can sew the torn cartilage or remove the particles from the knee joint, looking at the image on the monitor.
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