cataract - an eye disease caused by a clouding of the lens.When a cataract patient sees the world blurred, as if through a stream of water - hence the name of the disease that occurs from the Greek word "waterfall".
lens - a kind of lens through which light rays refracted to fall on the retina.Healthy lens is transparent and elastic, so that people can quickly focus the mind on a subject near or remote.When the contents of the cataract lens gradually becomes cloudy due to denaturation (destruction of the structure) of the protein included in its composition.With the maturation of cataract lens fibers break down, liquefy, and it becomes a milky white color.
cataract is congenital and acquired.But more often the disease develops with age.Age (senile) cataracts in varying degrees, there is almost all people over 80 years.In 70% of cases of disease onset to the time critical stage when required operative s
Symptoms of the disease usually begins with a clouding of the lens of its periphery.Until then, until it gets to the central region of the lens, the patient may not even notice the disease: no pain or inconvenience a person does not experience.The closer to the center is a clouding of the lens, the more serious vision problems.If clouding of the central part of the lens may appear or worsen myopia, increased sensitivity to light.
In cataract the pupil, which are usually black, becomes gray or yellowish tint.In the later stages of the disease it becomes completely white.The patient may complain of increased sensitivity and at the same time to see everything around dim, blurred, with fuzzy outlines.
Cataracts at a later stage may lead to the development of secondary glaucoma and irreversible blindness, so at the first sign of visual impairment need to see an ophthalmologist.For the diagnosis of the disease is determined by the field of view, its sharpness, measured the intraocular pressure (IOP), appointed by the US and electrophysiological study of the retina and optic nerve.To determine the degree of maturity of the cataract and lens opacity using slit lamp.
Cataracts can not be cured with medication.Drops for eyes and any other drugs only inhibit the development of disease.To get rid of cataract microsurgery required to replace the affected lens with an artificial lens.Do not wait until the cataract is "ripe."Now doctors believe that the sooner treatment is started, the greater the chances of a successful operation.
idea of surgery is very simple: it is necessary to remove the "tainted" the lens, and in its place to put an artificial lens.In our time, this is the procedure for extracapsular cataract extraction.This incision width of not more than 3.5 mm.After it is broken and removed only nucleus of the lens (the procedure Ultrasonic phacoemulsification) and lenticular masses and the capsular bag (lens coating) remains.There is placed a folded flexible and elastic artificial lens that is straightened within the capsular bag.The patient can go home immediately after the operation.
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