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In the world the number of people with hearing loss is approaching a billion.

in Russia - more than 13 million people with hearing impairments, of which more than a million - are children.For every thousand newborn child is born with complete deafness, two or three deafness develops in the first two or three years of life.On this huge social problem and ways to overcome it tells

director of the Russian Scientific and Practical Center of Audiology and Hearing Aids






- George Abelovich, Mr.

than a work-surdlogov audiologists built today?

- This specialty has existed since 1996, and today there are 227 surdologichesky centers across Russia - this is a very serious problem, which does not yet solved and continues to grow.Hereditary deafness occurs fifteen times more often than phenylketonuria - a hereditary disease associated with impaired metabolism of amino acids, which leads eventually to a heavy defeat of the central nervous syst

em, which manifests itself in particular in the form of violations of intellectual development.

- What can cause hearing loss - partial or complete?

- Adult man with the usual speech disability can get a limit, and even the loss of his beloved work, sometimes - disability, difficulties in communication and everyday life.Consequences of the loss or absence of hearing loss in a young child is much more serious.Children learn to talk by imitating what he heard from the adults, so a good ear - a prerequisite of normal psycho-speech development of the child.Hearing impaired child is often lags behind peers in intellectual development, it is difficult to go to school, inevitable difficulties in communication, the choice of future profession.

- The Dangers of late detection of pathology of hearing?

- If the violation is not detected on time and taken to the rehabilitation of hearing, it leads to speech problems, development, psycho-emotional and cognitive skills, and ultimately - to the fact that the child is incapacitated and does not receive a full academic education and can notget a normal profession.

Fortunately, in our country since 2008 in all maternity facilities implemented universal screening system that allows using objective methods to check the hearing of the newborn in the first month of life, which corresponds to "golden" International Standard identifying pathologies of hearing.Up to three months, you must specify the diagnosis, up to six months - to determine the individual rehabilitation program.Only in this case it is possible to achieve a good result.

- What is hereditary deafness?

- This is not necessarily deaf parents, they may well have a child with normal hearing.Hereditary deafness can be caused by a mutation of a gene, and the child may be born with normal hearing, and after a year or two he will develop deafness.

- And how to further solve the problem of recovery of hearing in children?

- Depending on the diagnosis of the problem or restore hearing solved with medication or surgical methods or hearing aids.If this is expressed as hearing loss or deafness, cochlear implants is required.If we talk about acquired pathology, especially in a metropolis, the number of people with hearing impairments will only grow - this is a trend observed throughout the world.

- These thirteen million, of which you have mentioned - people standing on the account, received a disability?

- This tentative statistics, which corresponds to WHO estimates.Unfortunately, the help-seeking behavior and detection of disease - two different things.For example, the All-Russian Society of the Deaf is only about a hundred thousand people with impaired hearing, and they in fact - hundreds of thousands of ... These are people who have not been rehabilitated in time, 95% of them - for the Deaf with disabilities.All of them require special training, some specific profession and available field of activity.

- What are today the most advanced techniques exist for the rehabilitation of hearing loss in adults?

- Before choosing the procedure you need to identify the cause.If hearing loss is due to lesions of the receptor and is a chronic process, there will only hearing aid.If this is an acute process, it can be treated with medication.

- Hearing Care is ...

-This technical method of rehabilitation of patients with disorders rather than with hearing loss.Such people do not take the speech and other sounds.Due to the fact that the damaged structure of the outer or middle ear or part of the hair cells that convert sound vibrations into electrical signals, discernible brain, they hear the sounds of a quiet, illegible.To enhance the sound transmitted to the auditory system of the deaf person, using hearing aids.

- The word "prosthesis" of many scares, just seems a hearing aid, old age, senility ... whether the operation is able to return the hearing?

- The age of hearing loss surgical methods can not return, here we can talk only about the prosthesis.The hearing aid is nothing repulsive or shameful, are the same people glasses - without problems, and hearing aid shy!This is wrong, this shows a low level of culture.Now let very compact hearing aids, which are placed inside the ear and completely visible.

- How long can last for such a device and whether it requires any special care?

- As with any device, working from the power source, ie battery, a hearing aid needs to be replaced - once every four years.

- Let's go back to the cochlear implant - what is it?

- It's - currently the only effective method of social and medical rehabilitation of patients with severe degrees of sensorineural hearing loss and deafness.This operation is no longer unique: worldwide operated on more than 110 thousand patients.

- Tell me, what is the cochlear implant, and that it is able to give the patient?

- Cochlear implantation is an implantation of electrode systems - biomedical electronic devices into the inner ear to restore hearing sensation.In this case it is possible to almost normally perceive it, the phone rings, engine sounds, music - all the sounds that surround us every day.And then, very important psychologically again or for the first time (someone like) to plunge into the world of sounds.As a result, cochlear implant people with complete deafness, describe their feelings with the words "I began to hear!".

- How often and how successfully Russia used this method?Is it an expensive operation?

- We have the technique has been tested for a long time - even in the Soviet Union in 1991.Then, such operations do little because of their high cost.Last year we put implants in 1200, and such an operation is very expensive - a million this year - already in 1400, that is, we are approaching the needs of the population - about two thousand implants per year.Age up to five years is considered ideal for surgery in children.The best result of cochlear implantation in congenital deafness can be reached at the earliest possible detection, diagnosis and early auditory rehabilitation (age up to two years).If deafness occurred after it developed, we should seek to minimize the "period of deafness."It is important that deafness was not long, because it is fraught with the collapse of the speech, atrophy speech zones, and then restore it becomes more difficult.Both of these conditions are the basis for the success of cochlear implantation.

- What do parents, who found a decrease or loss of hearing in a child?

- Do not tighten and go to a specialist, such as the problem will not be solved by itself.

- And look for the means ...

- tools Search is not necessary, because the state covers nearly all the costs of hearing rehabilitation, that is, 99 percent of all implants is due to the federal budget as a high-tech kinds of medical aid - the so-called programVMP.

- That is, any child born deaf can now get the opportunity to hear?

- For the cochlear implant, there are certain eligibility criteria approved a number of methodological materials and orders, and understandably so, as such assistance, as I said, is funded by the state.Here are some criteria for children.In the first place the children with bilateral congenital deafness occurred before the development of speech.In addition to this, the absence of comorbidities, such as middle ear disease and nasopharyngeal and other pathological changes, which can be found on the consultation with a specialist.It is extremely important the support of the parents with the detection of hearing impairment.

- How do you know that the implantation was successful, because the child is aged one and a half years he still can not express their feelings and convey the quality of the sound?

- Postoperative rehabilitation of patients implanted and tuning the speech processor - the most time-consuming and crucial stage.Patients, especially children, should be under constant supervision of specialists - surdopedagogs, psychologists, in general - a long and laborious, but the result is worth it.The absence of one of these conditions may negate the possibilities of the method.

- Suppose the operation - carried out rehabilitation - is successful, the child - hear.Is he at the same disability?

- Disability issues in implanted patients, as well as insurance of the cochlear implant system, problems with learning in kindergartens and schools, and with them the issues of higher education and employment, are still open and require immediate solutions.I very much hope that they will be solved soon and hearing impaired have received an opportunity to take all the sounds of the world, there will be more.

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