The Ebola virus today and tomorrow

Ebola virus
terrible visitor from Africa today terrifies the whole world.Who and when released the Ebola virus, whether it will be a new plague, and whether it is possible to find salvation from it - these issues concern many.

Ebola virus is rife at the moment in West Africa, for a long time carried the life in remote villages, surrounded by tropical forests.

It belongs to the family of filoviruses (Filoviridae), along with Marburg virus (Marburgvirus), also causing a dangerous fever.The virus leads to a dangerous disease with a mortality rate up to 90% and is highly contagious.

From the history of the Ebola virus

culprit severe deadly diseases - Ebola haemorrhagic fever (GLE), or, as we now call it, the disease caused by the Ebola virus (BVVE) - was first discovered in 1976.

Then while there were two outbreaks: in Nzara (Sudan) and Yambuku (Zaire, now - Democratic Republic of Congo).The name of the virus obtained from the same river, near which was the town, which first broke the disease.

Yambuku The first teacher became ill 44 years.At first the symptoms were similar to those of malaria.Presumably, because of the repeated use of needles virus spread rapidly.

Nzara The disease broke out among the workers in the factory.Despite checking living there animal and insect vectors of the virus has not been identified.

viruses

There are five subtypes of Ebola virus

  • Bundibugyo (BDBV);
  • Zaire (EBOV);
  • Reston (RESTV);
  • Sudan (SUDV);
  • Tai Forest (TAFV).

Zaire and Sudan subtypes and Bundibugyo (the first outbreak - the end of 2007 in Uganda) are the cause of major outbreaks in Africa.

restonskogo With regard to the Ebola virus, open in the Philippines and in China, it is able to infect humans, but cases have been identified so far.

virus Tai Forest, Ivory or d'Ivuarsky ebolavirus, first discovered in Ivory Coast chimpanzees in 1994.It caused infection in female scientist that cured, six weeks.

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sources of infection

natural host of the virus is considered to be a flesh-eating bat (birth Hypsignathus monstrosus, Epomops franqueti and Myonycteris torquata).To the person gets the virus from infected animals (different types of monkeys, antelopes, bats, etc.) through direct contact and through the media.

Infection occurs and another sick: droplets, by contact, including through the objects and environment.The Ebola virus remains viable for a long time, even after the death of the sick.

Danger Ebola

virus causes a disease with severe, pain, weakness, and hemorrhagic syndrome - internal and external bleeding, bloody vomiting, dehydration.

incubation period - 2-21 days.Death usually occurs in the second week of bleeding and shock.Laboratory tests show a decrease in leukocyte and platelet counts, as well as increasing the number of liver enzymes.

EPIDEMIC 2014

Chronology fight Infographics

surveys of the population in the affected areas have revealed at 7% had antibodies to the virus, it may mean that some infection takes place quickly and without symptoms.

Besides the fact that Ebola is characterized by a high mortality rate, it is also highly contagious.This explains the need for strict observance of infection security measures - the use of personal protective equipment, safe injection and safe burial.

Dangerous contact with blood or secretions of a patient, so doctors often work in biological protection suits, patients are isolated, and the premises are subjected to disinfection.

Those who came into contact with or infect them with belonging items, should also be under the supervision of doctors.

big problem is the traditional funeral rites in Africa - people find it difficult to explain why you can not kiss a relative of the deceased, to touch him.Due to non-compliance with these measures, the virus is spreading exponentially.

Chronology of virus outbreaks of Ebola

According to the World Health Organization:

Year

Country

subtype virus

disease cases

Deaths

mortality ratio

2012

Democratic Republic of Congo

Ebola Bundibugyo

57

29

51%

2012

Uganda

Ebola Sudan

7

4

57%

2012

Uganda

Ebola Sudan

24

17

71%

2011

Uganda

Ebola Sudan

1

1

100%

2008

Democratic Republic of Congo

Ebola Zaire

32

14

44%

2007

Uganda

Ebola Bundibugyo

149

37

25%

2007

Democratic Republic of Congo

Ebola Zaire

264

187

71%

2005

Congo

Ebola Zaire

12

10

83%

2004

Sudan

Ebola Sudan

17

7

41%

2003

Congo

Ebola Zaire

35

29

83%

(November-December)

2003

Congo

Ebola Zaire

143

128

90%

(January-April)

2001-2002

Congo

Ebola Zaire

59

44

75%

2001-2002

Gabon

Ebola Zaire

65

53

82%

2000

Uganda

Ebola Sudan

425

224

53%

1996

South Africa

Ebola Zaire

1 *

1

100%

1996

Gabon

Ebola Zaire

60

45

75%

(July-December)

1996

Gabon

Ebola Zaire

31

21

68%

(January-April)

1995

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Ebola Zaire

315

254

81%

1994

Ivory Coast

Ebola Ivory Coast

1

0

0%

1994

Gabon

Ebola Zaire

52

31

60%

1979

Sudan

Ebola Sudan

34

22

65%

1977

Democratic Republic of Congo

Ebola Zaire

1

1

100%

1976

Sudan

Ebola Sudan

284

151

53%

1976

Democratic Republic of Congo

Ebola Zaire

318

280

88%

Ebola today and tomorrow

The virus becomes a global threat.To date, since the beginning of this year, 1,350 people died from it contracted 2240. It is a large-scale outbreak of the history of the (Zaire subtype of the virus, mortality rate of 60-90%).The most affected countries - Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria.

world understands that a blind eye to the Ebola virus can not go on.Begin work on a vaccine, which until now did not exist.In Russia, it is developing a State Scientific Center "Vector", it passes preclinical trials, work is most intense.

Given the scale of the threat, the WHO endorsed the use ZMapp experimental vaccine developed in the United States.Three medical professionals (the Americans and a Spaniard), infected in Liberia, after her feel better.One of them later died (resident in Spain).

According to the expert organization "Doctors without Borders" Rosa Crestani, the danger of the Ebola epidemic in countries with a developed health system is low.by sanitary control measures at borders and treatment options will not give a single cases of spread of infection.Help is needed especially West Africa, where there is no such opportunity, and the disease is already out of control.

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