Hypertensive crisis : causes and consequences

Hypertensive crisis : causes and consequences
life-threatening condition is most often triggered by psychological or physical stress.

Fortunately, hypertensive crisis is not as common - approximately 1% of patients with hypertension - and primarily related to the lack of adequate treatment for hypertension.The duration of a hypertensive crisis can be from several hours to several days.In some cases, hypertensive crisis may require hospitalization of the patient in the hospital.Most often they are women in menopause.

Hypertensive crisis: what is it?

Hypertensive crisis - a state of sharp increase in blood pressure (not necessarily to very high values), which is manifested by certain symptoms from the outside, especially the nervous system, and cardiovascular and other organs.Hypertensive crisis is not typical blood pressure numbers.For some, the crisis - a sharp rise in blood pressure, even up to 130 mm Hg.Article, and for someone -. but with increasing up to 200 mm Hg.Art.and more.

cause of a hypertensive crisis can psycho-emotional stress, ph

ysical activity, a sharp change in weather conditions, alcohol and large amounts of salt, the abolition of antihypertensive drugs.

types of hypertensive crisis

When hyperkinetic Stroke (Stroke type 1), there is a pronounced rise in systolic blood pressure (the first, or top, as it is called, the figure);diastolic blood pressure (the second, or lower, digit) does not change or changes little.This hyperkinetic crisis occurs most often in the early stages of the disease develops rapidly, accompanied by tachycardia (heart palpitations) and stormy autonomic symptoms: face covered with red spots, increased sweating.Lasts crisis type 1 is usually two to four hours.

Hypokinetic crisis (crisis of type 2) features an increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (ie, increasing both figures, for example, was 90/60, and suddenly the 170/110).Development of the crisis of the 2nd type is typical for elderly patients with initially higher blood pressure figures, in the later stages of the disease, when there is organ damage.Hypokinetic crisis develops more slowly and last longer (up to several days).For patients characterized by weakness (sharp decline of forces), pale skin, the prevalence of cerebral and cardiac symptoms.

Hypertensive crisis: possible complications

most frequent complications of hypertensive crisis:

  • acute left ventricular failure (cardiac asthma, pulmonary edema),
  • acute coronary syndrome,
  • acute myocardial infarction,
  • dissecting aortic aneurysm,
  • encephalopathy,
  • transient cerebral ischemia,
  • stroke,
  • fibrinoid necrosis of the wall of the renal vessels, and acute renal failure.

feeling of fear, anxiety - frequent "companions" hypertensive crisis, which may join tremor (shaking), fever, blurred vision (due to bleeding into the structures of the eye or swelling of the optic nerve), repeated vomiting, neurological disorders with dissociationreflections on the upper and lower limbs and other disorders.Encephalopathy (organic brain damage non-inflammatory nature) may manifest as irritability and oppression, and euphoria.

In severe cases, a hypertensive crisis may be followed by coma, pulmonary edema, thrombosis and embolism of various arteries, acute renal failure with a decrease in urine output and azotemia.

Emergency first aid pi hypertensive crisis

goal of treatment of hypertensive crisis is to reduce blood pressure to the same level.Reduction should be conducted smoothly and slowly, not more than 10 mm Hg.Art.at one o'clock.The sharp decline could lead to the collapse of - state, which is accompanied by loss of consciousness and may be the direct cause of death.

For the treatment of hypertensive crisis can be used a variety of drugs, which the patient is informed and which had been recommended by his doctor for such an emergency, until the ambulance arrived.Usually, almost all drugs for relief of hypertensive crisis administered either intravenously or as lozenge in the mouth.This is due to the fact that:

  • for hypertensive crisis is often marked by nausea and vomiting, with the result that oral administration of drugs is ineffective,
  • oral drugs are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract rather slowly, in addition, at Stroke marked narrowing of the small arteries, includingand bowel arteries through which the drug must be absorbed into the bloodstream,
  • in so-called buccal preparation reception (when it dissolves in the oral cavity and absorbed through the buccal mucosa), it does not enter the portal vein and the liver, which is partially broken, and immediatelyIt enters the general circulation.

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