Glaucoma : from carelessness to blindness

«green cataract" - one of the most common eye diseases, often leading to complete loss of vision.

Glaucoma - a group of serious eye diseases which are caused by increased intraocular pressure.With advanced glaucoma and fixed pupil acquires the characteristic bluish-greenish hue.This fact gave the name to the disease: from the Greek "glaucoma" - bluish clouding of the eye lens.In German, for the same reason glaucoma is called "green cataract."Today it is one of the most common eye diseases, often leading to complete loss of vision.

Glaucoma - a group of serious eye diseases which are caused by increased intraocular pressure.With advanced glaucoma and fixed pupil acquires the characteristic bluish-greenish hue.This fact gave the name to the disease: from the Greek "glaucoma" - bluish clouding of the eye lens.In German, for the same reason glaucoma is called "green cataract."Today it is one of the most common eye diseases, often leading to complete loss of vision.

common to all varieties of glaucoma is

elevated intraocular pressure (IOP).Normally it is 18-27 mm Hg, and in glaucoma soars to 80. The disease can affect both eyes.IOP increases due to violation of the circulation of intraocular fluid.Increased IOP leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and ischemia (blood disorder) in the optic nerve.To compression of nerve fibers, deprived of food, will atrophy and die, leading to the destruction of retinal tissue, and progressive loss of vision.If part of the optic nerve fibers able to avoid destruction by the transition to the state parabiosis (decreased activity, "the dream of life and death"), the restoration of vision is still possible.

reasons, starts the process of periodic or continuous increase in IOP can be a lot of heredity, the individual features of anatomy of the eye, cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous system, resulting in the disruption of the blood supply to the brain.Usually it should work several factors that result in developed glaucoma.

by age of the patient are several main types of glaucoma.

  • Congenital glaucoma quite rare, in one case by 10-20 thousand newborns.The disease may develop if I-II trimesters of pregnancy, the expectant mother will have been ill with rubella, mumps, polio, syphilis, etc. Vitamin A deficiency, hyperthyroidism, excessive alcohol use mother -. Are also risk factors of glaucoma development in the infant.About the birth of diagnosis is 60% of children with glaucoma: in these toddlers significantly increased the cornea or all of the eyeball (gidroftalm - edema of the eyes, or buphthalmos - bull's eye).In other cases, congenital glaucoma manifest up to 3 years.
  • Youth (juvenile glaucoma) - diagnosed between the ages of 3 and 35 years old.Sometimes separately isolated infantile glaucoma (from 3 to 10 years).It is a rare disease.Most often it is caused by genetic disorders.
  • Primary glaucoma adults - the most common form of the disease.Glaucoma often develops unnoticed for the patient.The main complaints: iridescent circles around lights, periodic temporary blurred vision, pain in the brow area.With the withering away of the cells of the retina in humans expanded area of ​​the blind spot, the area of ​​peripheral vision narrows.By the time when the visual acuity decreases markedly, the disease is already at advanced stages, and the optic nerve is almost completely atrophied.
  • Secondary glaucoma adults is caused by other eye diseases that lead to the violation of the circulation of intraocular fluid and, consequently, to an increase in IOP.

should also like to say about acute attack of glaucoma.This condition can develop when nervous tension, fatigue, prolonged eye strain or work in a position with an inclination of the head.The attack begins with iridescent circles around lights, headaches and pain in the eyes, blurred vision.IOP rises rapidly to 60-80 mm Hg, the circulation of intraocular fluid stops.The cornea becomes cloudy due to the strong run-off, which peredavlivaet optic nerves.May develop nausea to vomiting, pain, smack in the heart area.The front surface of the eye is red from the blood vessels and the tread becomes bluish.The pupil does not react to light.When the feeling of eyes seems solid, like a rock.An acute attack of glaucoma requires emergency medical attention, otherwise the patient may cause irreversible loss of vision.

the diagnosis of glaucoma is primarily carried out measurement of intraocular pressure: one-time and daily fluctuations in IOP (twice a day).In addition, the estimated figures intraorbital outflow of fluid and the boundaries of the field (perimetry).To find the causes of glaucoma and evaluate the possibility of the operation is gonioscopy method.Finally, ophthalmoscopy (fundus examination) is performed to study the state of the optic nerve.You may need a number of additional studies with the help of special equipment.

Glaucoma treatment has three main objectives:

  • normalization of intraocular pressure - the primary task;
  • improve the blood supply to the optic nerve and the inner shells of the eye;
  • normalization intraorbital liquid exchange between the eye tissues.

Depending on the variety of glaucoma and causes of the disease is possible pharmacological, surgical or laser therapy.

Glaucoma in any case should not be prescribed any drugs on their own.Drugs that decrease intraocular pressure are selected ophthalmologist individually conduct a mandatory diagnostic tests.The response to the same drug can vary from person to person, so please follow the doctor's advice and regularly visit him for repeated examinations.

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