Colorectal cancer most often occurs among blacks . little less new cases white and least likely to suffer from this disease Asians , Pacific residents Islands , American Indians, aboriginals Alaska , and Hispanics .
All people who passed the mark of 50 years, dramatically increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer.And the older you get, the higher the risk.Most cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed in people over 50 years.The majority of affected individuals had no other risk factors except age.
You dramatically increase chances of getting colorectal cancer, if one of your relatives (parents, siblings or children) suffered from this disease.The risk that
Family history is burdened if:
- at least 3 of your relatives suffered from cancer of the colon, and at least one of them are you a parent, brother or sister.
- if ill relatives were in two adjacent generations, for example, the grandmother and mother.
- one of his relatives was diagnosed with cancer before the age of 50 years
If you have a history burdened by colorectal cancer and related types of cancer, then you have the opportunity to undergo genetic testing.For related types of cancer are: ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, cancer of the small intestine.Genetic testing is a blood test, which detected changes in gene - mutations.
most common mutations occur in two major states:
1. familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP )
2. Lynch syndrome, also called hereditary nonpolyposis cancercolon.
Most people with these mutations develop colorectal cancer in the absence of a thorough health surveillance.
Genetic testing can tell you whether you are a carrier of the mutation, and what kind of this mutation: familial adenomatous polyposis or Lynch syndrome.
Most people who develop colorectal cancer have no family history.
your chances of getting colorectal cancer dramatically increased if:
- you already had colorectal cancer
- have another type of cancer, such as ovarian cancer or endometrial cancer
- you removed polypsintestine, especially if removal of polyps was large and there were many
- you are more than 10 years of ill ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease
- you took a course of radiation therapy to the abdomen or pelvis
- Quit smoking, if you smoke
- Make sure that the index of your body weight was in the normal range
- Most Exercise
- Eat longer whole grains , fruit, vegetables , poultry and fish
- Drink less alcohol
Immediately contact your doctor if you find yourself in the symptoms of colorectal cancer such as:
- changes in bowel habits
- bleeding from the rectum, including the admixture of a bright scarlet or dark blood in the stool, if yourchair just seems dark
- constant or frequent diarrhea, constipation, or feeling that your bowel does not empty completely
- abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating
- unexplained weight loss
- constant fatigue
since colorectal cancer is often asymptomatic, should be discussed with your physician screening tests for cancer.Screening methods allow doctors to detect the disease before the appearance of any symptoms.Under certain screening tests for colorectal cancer can be detected and removed small precancerous growths in the colon and the small intestine, called adenomatous polyps.If they are detected early and removed, they can not be transformed into cancer.
If your doctor suspect you have colorectal cancer, to begin with it will bring you a history (ask how and when the onset of the disease that worries), then carry out inspection.He can then assign additional methods of inspection:
- Colonoscopy - a research method in which the doctor uses a colonoscope can view your intestines.Colonoscopy can be done with the presence of symptoms such as unexplained rectal bleeding, constant diarrhea or constipation, blood in stools, or pain in the lower abdomen.Colonoscopy is recommended when other screening tests indicate colorectal cancer.
- Sigmoidoscopy - a research method in which the doctor uses an endoscope may view the lower bowel.Sigmoidoscopy can also be carried out with the presence of symptoms such as unexplained rectal bleeding, constant diarrhea or constipation, blood in stools, or pain in the lower abdomen.Sometimes in the course of this study produce removal of polyps.
- barium enema - a method of research, when rectally administered barium solution which fills the gut and the subsequent conduct of radiological research it looks white - contrast to the intestinal wall.
- Biopsy - a method in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the wall of the gut, and then studied under a microscope.The doctor pathologist who studies the sample, see in it the cancer cells if they are there.
- Complete blood count - used in the event of symptoms such as fatigue, weakness , anemia or weight loss .
For people with an increased risk of developing cancer of this localization is recommended to conduct regular colonoscopy, because during this diagnostic procedure possible to remove polyps and taking material for biopsy.
If the survey you still found colorectal cancer, you will be assigned additional methods of inspection to determine whether the cancer has spread.These methods include:
- Computed tomography (CT), whereby whether the cancer to the liver, lungs and the abdominal cavity can be seen spread.
- chest X-ray - to detect lung metastases
- MRI and PET to determine whether the cancer has spread to the organs of the chest or pelvis.
- Ultrasound to determine the cause of abdominal pain or cause of increasing abdominal circumference, you can also evaluate whether the cancer has spread to the liver.Endoscopic ultrasound is used to determine how far the cancer has spread rectum.
- Blood tests for the presence of specific substances, indicating that the cancer has spread to bones and liver
- Blood test for carcinoembryonic antigen
treatment of colorectal cancer is much more successful when it is detected early.Routine screening can significantly reduce the number of deaths from colorectal cancer.In some studies, can not detect and remove polyps before they could be transformed into cancer.Screening methods include:
- Fecal occult blood test, fecal immunochemical test
- Virtual colonoscopy
Using these tests can detect cancer in early stages, when it is better to treat.Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy is a test in which you can find and remove polyps, to stop them from turning into cancer.Virtual colonoscopy found polyps.If the results of virtual colonoscopy and stool analysis assumes the presence of polyps, a colonoscopy is necessary to perform endoscopic and delete them.
Discuss with your doctor which tests are necessary for you.People with an increased risk of developing cancer, such as African-Americans or people with a family history may need to be the beginning of regular routine methods of inspection to 50 and do them more often.
If you have a family history, discuss the possibilities of genetic research.
first step in the treatment of colorectal cancer is its surgical removal.Sometimes simple operations can be performed during colonoscopy - removal of small polyps and small amount of the underlying tissue.But, unfortunately, sometimes it is necessary to resort to large transactions, in which can be removed part of the colon.And if the cancer has spread beyond the bowel, such as the liver, it may need more detailed operation.
After the tumor was examined under a microscope, it can be assigned to the stage.Stage reflects how far the cancer has spread.The definition stage of the process also helps the doctor to choose the tactics of treatment.
cancer that has not spread beyond the walls of the colon and rectum, can be cured only by surgery.If the cancer has gone beyond the colon, it may need to radiation or chemotherapy, or a combination thereof.
Side effects of the treatment of colorectal cancer depends on the type of cancer, the selected method of treatment, the age and general health.Some side effects can be prevented.For example, the physician may advance to appoint antiemetic drugs.
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