Osteoarthritis of the knee : a disease comes with age

Osteoarthritis of the knee (gonarthrosis) - a slowly progressive chronic disease of one or two of the knee, which interferes with the structure of the articular cartilage and meniscus, as well as a restructuring of bone involved in the formation of joints.

disease is metabolic and degenerative in nature but may occasionally worsen, accompanied by pain, swelling and limitation of movement in the joint.Most often it occurs during the cold season.

Age changes

disease is based on the violation (deceleration) of natural physiological processes of regeneration of cartilage chondrocytes cells.This is due to the natural aging and wear of the cartilage of the joints.

When osteoarthritis knee fracture processes predominate over the processes of formation of cartilage.This leads to its dehydration, loss of elasticity and high load can cause cracking and fragmentation of the articular cartilage is not only, but also the menisci.

a result, the cartilage adjacent to the bone tissue is increased mechanical load,

causing its seal, the flattening of the articular surfaces and the formation of bony outgrowths.

With a significant decrease in the thickness of the cartilage in the joint range of motion is limited, and when full it is possible to form the destruction to coalescence ankylosis articular ends.The loss of elasticity of the ligaments, tendons and fibrous capsule of the knee joint leading to joint stiffness.

Osteoarthritis is most common in postmenopausal women who are overweight.

main symptoms

  • joint pain, worse during exercise, when descending the stairs, after prolonged sitting, as well as at night and during periods of exacerbations.
  • stiffness in the morning, reducing the range of motion in the joint, sometimes accompanied by a feeling of crunch.
  • Swelling of joints and increased skin temperature over it, its redness (more during exacerbations).
  • Accumulation of fluid in the joint cavity and surrounding periarticular bags.
  • Development X- and O-shaped deformation of the feet caused by uneven load on the meniscus (medial meniscus thinning faster than the exterior, thereby causing deviation of the tibia).

Diagnostics

most often diagnosed based on the patient's complaints, change the joint type, the data of X-ray studies (X-ray, CT scan), magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound of the knee, as well as to assess the composition of synovial fluid obtained by a puncture.

Basic principles of treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee

goal of treatment - removal of pain and other acute symptoms and preventing further destruction of articular cartilage and meniscus, joint preservation of functional capacity.

During an exacerbation of the patient is required discharge joint (limitation of physical activity, the use of special patella, as well as additional devices), analgesics and topical therapy (rubbing ointments, gels, compresses and lotions).

Additionally assigned use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, when indicated - corticosteroids, including the intra-articular injection of drugs.

To improve the regeneration of cartilage tissue is prescribed long-term use (over several months) chondroprotectors, hyaluronic acid preparations.At the same time appointed massage, physiotherapy, physical therapy, acupuncture, osteopathic therapy.

In remission appoint apitherapy, hirudotherapy, balneological therapy, exercise, self-massage, herbal medicine, spa treatment.

In addition, recommended treatment and preventive measures to combat overweight.

In some cases, arthroscopy is performed with removal of meniscal fragments and introduction into the cavity of the joint special drugs.With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy and the tendency to spend ankilozirovaniya surgery with the installation of the implant (artificial joint).

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