Tracheostomy : What You Need to Know

Tracheostomy : What You Need to Know
«I need it like the air": for popular expression often used for nothing, hiding the harsh fact - without breathing a man can not live.And when a severe allergic reaction, swelling of the throat from a burn or a foreign object in the airway take the opportunity to breathe a matter of saving lives is compressed to hours, minutes and even seconds.Help the victim in such a situation can tracheostomy.

tracheostomy - a surgical operation on the dissection of anterior tracheal wall, known to mankind for more than 2 thousand years.

but not enough to let air into the lungs, throat cutting.Will the planned operation or to provide emergency assistance, for the hole and a special tube inserted into it - tracheostomy - you need to properly care for and watch.

Why do

tracheostomy tracheostomy may be the result of elective surgery or emergency intervention necessary to save lives.

In case of emergency, such as severe allergic swelling of the throat or airway blockage foreign object, trained person can do a trac

heotomy materials at hand - a knife or a pen (in this case the operation is called konikotomiya).In hospitals, this operation is done under endotracheal anesthesia or local anesthesia.

tracheostomy set at:

  • obstruction of the upper respiratory tract;
  • need adequate rehabilitation tracheobronchial tree;
  • respiratory support for patients on ventilators.

obstruction can occur days, months and years, in the case of chronic inflammation or cancer of the larynx, a few hours - with chemical burns or infections, or in minutes and seconds - with injuries of the trachea and larynx, angioedema or clogged airwaystract foreign bodies.In some cases, doctors do not wait for held obstruction and a tracheostomy do in advance, when the threat posed complications.

If tracheostomy is needed for a short time, the hole closes itself pretty quickly.In the event that had formed nezarastayuschy clearance, doctors zashyut it once lost the need for stoma.

tracheostomy: the rules of care

tracheostomy can be set to a relatively short period of time, for months or even a lifetime.This need arises, for example, a complete removal of the larynx, or serious congenital abnormalities.

This tracheostomy care in a health facility is required only during the course of the formation of a tracheotomy.This process can take from a few days to a couple weeks.Then take care of a tracheostomy may be the patient himself or his relative.

There tracheostomy cannula, with a special tube in the section of the trachea, and beskanyulnye.In both cases, the tracheostomy requires proper care, which not only make life easier for the patient, but also help to avoid complications.Over time, the holes formed lumen finally, ceasing to be narrowed.From this moment the attending physician can suggest stop wearing tracheostomy cannula.

Tracheostomy tubes come in different sizes, they are made of different polymers, plastics and metals.Process cannula tracheostomy care outside hospital includes daily removal of the tube from the opening - stoma, washing and cleaning of pipes, and the subsequent return of the cannula in place.Before the procedure of withdrawal and the installation of the cannula is required to wash their hands thoroughly.

tracheotomy tube from plaque mucus crusts and cleaned with the brush in the cleaning solution, dried, wiped a sterile cloth soaked in rubbing alcohol, and then smeared with the outside of the sterile glycerol.The tube through the stoma neat screwing movement.

doctor may allow to insert a tube into the stoma immediately - foreign object in the throat tires patients both physically and emotionally.However, for the clearance should be closely monitored, returning the cannula at the first sign of narrowing holes.Before returning to the tube in the stoma cannula itself, as well as the edge of the hole and surrounding skin should be treated with ointment prescribed by a doctor.

and cannula, and beskanyulnaya tracheostomy requires care not only for tube and airway reorganization, is to remove the sputum aspirator health and in the care of stoma.

Cleaning tracheostomy

  • skin around the tracheostomy cleaned with sterile cloths and furatsilina solution in lukewarm water, and treated with ointments prescribed anti-inflammatory;
  • thinning mucus may require injections into the stoma a few drops of trypsin, or 0.9% sodium chloride solution;
  • avoid drying of the mucous membranes of the trachea to help a couple of drops of sterile glycerol or sterile vaseline oil;
  • process facilitate sputum suction preliminary vibratory and percussion massage chest.

Dangers and restrictions when tracheostomy

presence of temporary or permanent tracheostomy imposes serious restrictions on the habitual way of life and commits to comply with some rules:

  • Avoid dusty rooms and stay in the polluted atmosphere;
  • not go out in the cold, the heat and windy weather as much as possible;
  • not sleep on your stomach;
  • sure to promptly clean the cannula;
  • can not take a shower, swim and completely immersed in the bath.

Ignoring these rules is life-threatening, because the water gets into the stoma can cause respiratory failure, dried and taken away from the tube mucus crust can clog the trachea and the bronchi, and the vulnerability of open airways has to various inflammatory processes.

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Useful advice for patients with a tracheostomy

addition to rigorous requirements, there are a few tips to make life easier for a person with a tracheostomy:

  • restore movement, breathing and swallowing function to help special exercises and gymnastics;
  • noise breathing through a tube indicates contamination occurred mucus and crusts;
  • with a cold, you can use a small enema for the release of mucus from the nose;
  • can not talk or laugh during a meal;
  • in the cold can not take deep breaths, and should cover the stoma multilayer bandage of gauze;
  • in the heat and dry weather, a gauze bandage must be periodically moisten with water;
  • thorough oral care warns inflammatory processes;
  • special inhalers moisturize the mucous and help to avoid irritation when breathing;
  • humidifiers not only facilitate breathing, and besiege the dust in the room;
  • for emotional comfort tracheostomy can cover cravat or tie.

After surgery the man for some time will not be able to talk.Smartphone or notebook with a pencil on hand to help experience any discomfort or just chat.

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