Tick-borne encephalitis : all about the disease

tick borne encephalitis
If you stuck tick - safely panic.Precaution excess does not happen.All of the tick-borne encephalitis in our article.

Tick-borne encephalitis - a serious viral disease, which are the carriers of ticks of the genus Ixodes (with characteristic shields on the back).In rare cases, it may be transmitted from raw milk of cows and goats.The disease is dangerous because any special methods of struggle with the virus do not have today.All doctors can do - spend symptomatic treatment and facilitate the course and consequences of the disease.

virus

causative agent of the disease is an RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus.In Russia, the three main subtypes of the virus are the most common:

  • virus encephalitis European subtype - occurs in the European part of Russia and is manifested in two stages with an interval of calm rush between them;
  • virus encephalitis Far Eastern subtype - found mainly in the Far East, it is characterized by high mortality rates, reaching values ​​of 20-40%;
  • virus encephalitis Siberian subtype - the disease often becomes chronic.

Meet, Tick-borne Encephalitis

For hunting insect chooses low bushes or grass along the trails, rarely climbing above the level of the human knee.Clinging to run past sacrifice, mite can still 2-3 hours to crawl through it in search of the most vulnerable area of ​​the skin.Whence it follows that the best prevention of tick-borne encephalitis is clothing with tight cuffs at the wrists and ankles, as well as a mandatory inspection of the satellite every two hours.

When bitten by a tick in the skin of the victim allocates special cementing substance, which fixes his jaw in the skin.So just remove the tick from the skin will not work.If, however, for him to pull, the head can come off.TBE virus is in the salivary glands of the tick.Therefore, if the head was left in the skin, the virus will continue to flow into the blood.To avoid this and to pull intact mite, it is necessary to tie the thread as close as possible to the skin surface, followed by gently shaking in different directions, to pull it upwards in a spiral.By the way, it is pointless to smear the tick with oil or Vaseline - it will not hurt, and then you will be more difficult to pull it out.Also, do not rub the tick between your fingers, since the risk of the virus to enter the bloodstream through the skin damage still remains.

How do you know that you are sick

incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis (the time from getting the virus in the body until the first symptoms of the disease) is 1-2 weeks, if you are bitten, and from 4 to 7 days in the transmission of the virus through contaminatedmilk.

At the initial stage the disease is manifested by fever, loss of appetite, muscle pain, headache, nausea and vomiting.

If the virus had time to get to the membranes of the brain, meningitis develops.The main signs of illness are fever, severe headache and stiff neck muscles (their prolonged spasm, due to which the patient can not touch chin chest).It is also characterized by the presence of symptoms and upper Kernig symptom Brudzinskogo.

Upper Brudzinskogo symptom: when you try to tilt your head forward a patient involuntarily bend the knees and pulls them to the stomach.

Kernig symptom: the inability to fully straighten the knee leg, pre-bent at the knee and hip joints.

In the case of a deeper distribution and destruction of brain tissue develops encephalitis - inflammation of the gray matter of the brain.Symptoms of the following diseases: headaches in the forehead and the eyes, drowsiness, vomiting, photophobia, seizures may develop paralysis and coma.

Tick-borne encephalitis - is extremely serious and life-threatening disease.Therefore, when the first symptoms should seek emergency medical attention.

Diagnostics encephalitis

Well, if you can catch and keep live tick that has bitten you.It will need to be taken to the laboratory to determine the presence or absence of disease.

patients also carried out:

  • CBC and analysis for IgM antibodies and IgG.(If the blood found IgM, means a virus infection occurred recently If found of IgG, either the patient has been vaccinated, or we see a late stage of the disease if it is found, and those and others -.. Infection in the middle.)
  • PCR (polymerasechain reaction) - analysis of RNA virus encephalitis.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) - assessment of the extent of brain damage.

Finally, a differential diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis borreliosis (Lyme disease).

Treatment of diseases

treatment is carried out only in the hospital, as the patient may need resuscitation.

worst picture of the development of the disease consists of nervous system damage, atrophy of the affected muscles, endocrine disorders, impaired memory and intellect, as well as the patient's death.To avoid this, doctors are advised to carry out timely vaccination of the population.

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